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Breeds of Cows Directory: "C": Cachena - Costeño con Cuernos

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia

 

Cachena
This breed is similar to the Barrosa and is found in Entrino, South Orense and Galicia in Spain. The Cachena has a mature weight of the females of 255 kg and only 112 cm tall and males stand 114 cm and weigh 375 kg.

The Cachena is not a dwarf but a miniature with a well-proportioned body and big lyre-shaped horns. These animals live on poor granite soil and are very hardy.[Oklahoma State University]

 
Canadienne, also known as: Black Canadian, Canadian, French Canadian
Canadienne cattle were developed in Canada primarily from animals imported from Normandy and Brittany during the 16th and 17th century. This stock was blended on this continent and selected for hardiness and productivity in the New World. The first regular importations of cattle into Canada were in 1608-1610 from Normandy in France. Later importations came from Brittany and Gascony. The population remained largely closed to other breeds and eventually became known as the Canadienne.

Unfortunately, the breed's characteristics were not highly valued and by the mid-1800's a number of influential farmers were encouraging the crossing of the native Canadienne with bigger imported breeds less adapted to local environmental conditions. In 1895 a small group of concerned breeders and academics joined to form the Canadienne Cattle Breeders Association. In recent years the Quebec government has initiated several programs aimed at conserving the breed and encouraging the breeders to continue. Most breeders and their cattle continue to be found in the province of Quebec.

The Canadienne is well adapted to the Canadian climate, soil and herbage and does not require the importation of expensive foods or intensive management. It is small (cows weigh 1000-1100 pounds), long-lived and has an exceptionally docile temperament. Canadiennes produce good quantities of quality milk in relation to their own body size and food requirements. The meat tends to be lean, and the light bone results in a high percentage of usable meat in relation to total body weight.

Born pale, Canadienne cattle become black or dark brown, often with paler muzzle, side, and udder or scrotum. There may occasionally be white on the udder, stomach and chest. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Canary Island, also know as Canaria (Spanish)
This breed is found on the Canary Islands off the coast of northwest Africa. They are reddish in coloration and are thought to of originated from the Galician Blond. These cattle were brought to the islands in the last part of the fifteenth century.

Some source site evidence that these cattle, brought to Santa Domingo in 1493 by the Spaniards, was the first breed brought to the New World.

Female Canary Island cattle average 148 cm in height and 575 kg in weight. The bulls are larger, standing 152 cm and weighing 800 kg.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Canchim

The Canchim breed is the result of scientific work, which aimed at obtaining economically, the best quality beef under Central Brazilian conditions, research continues even today, making the Canchim breed the most studied in Brazil. The Canchim bull, serving pasture bred zebu cows, produce early fast growing products, thereby attaining the end to which it was developed, being outstanding compared to other breeds, under the same number of calves, however heavier and of superior quality. Compared to European breeds, the Canchim bull produces calves with the same weight but in large quantity. The early fast growing products, the result of pasture crossbred zebu cows with Canchim bulls, can be slaughtered at 18 months old if in feedlots after weaning, up to 24 months old if in feedlots after grazing and at 30 months if bred exclusively grazing on the range.

Zebu cattle (Bos Indicus), introduced to Brazil in the last century, were extensively crossbred with herds of native cattle. The Indian cattle well known for its ability to survive in the tropics, adapted quickly to Brazil, and in a short time populated large areas, considerably improving Brazilian beef cattle breeding.

Despite of its rusticity, zebu cattle was found inferior to the European breeds in respect to being prococious and yield of meat. It became clear that the beef cattle population required genetic improvement.

Simply placing European beef cattle (Bos Taurus), highly productive in temperate climates, in Central Brazil, would not produce good results, due to their inability to adapt to a tropical environment. Besides the climate, other factors such as the high occurrence of parasites, disease and the very low nutritional value of the native forage.

he European breed used in the information of Canchim cattle was Charolais. According to research at that time, Charolais cattle was chosen because of its high yield and for being the only European breed specifically for beef, and to present conditions to adapt to Central Brazil. In 1992 the Ministry of Agriculture imported Charolais cattle to the State of Goias, where they remained till 1936, when they were transferred to Sao Carlos in the State of Sao Paulo, today the Canchim Farm of the Government Research Station, Embrapa. From this herd originated the dams and sires utilized in the program of crossbreeding.

The main zebu breed which contributed to the information to the Canchim was the Indobrazil, although Guzera and Nelore where also used. Preference was given to the Indobrazil breed, due to the ease of obtaining large herds, and reasonable prices, which would have been difficult with Gir, Nelore or Guzera. The alternative crossbreeding programs initialized in 1940 by Dr. Antonio Teixeira Viana had the objective of obtaining first, crossbreeds 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu and second, 3/8 Charolais x 5/8 Zebu, and evaluate which of the two schemes was the most indicated. The total number of Zebu cows utilized to produce the half-breeds was 368, of which 292 were Indubrazil, 44 Guzera and 32 Nelore.

All the animals produced were reared exclusively on the range. A control of parasites was done every 15 days and the animals were weighed at birth and monthly. The females weighed up to 30 months and males up to 40 months.

The data collected during various years of work, permitted an evaluation of the various degrees of crossbreeding. The conclusion was that the 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu was the most suitable, presenting an excellent frame for meat, precocious, resistance to heat and parasites, and a uniform coat.

The first crossbreed animals with the degree of blood 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu born in 1953. Thus was born a new type of beef cattle for Central Brazil, with the name Canchim, derived from the name of a tree very common in the region where the breed was developed.

It was not until 1971 that the Brazilian Association of Canchim Cattle Breeders (ABCCAN) was formed, and on the 11th November 1972 the Herd Book was initiated. On the 18th May 1983 the Ministry of Agriculture, recognized Canchim type cattle as a Breed. [Oklahoma State University]. Images from: www.canchim.com.br, www.bichoonline.com.br, www.trekearth.com

 
Carinthian Blond also know as Austrian Blond
Also known as the Austrian Blond, this dairy and meat breed is found in Austria and is a draft type. It is nearly white in color. [Oklahoma State University]

Status: Nearly extinct. Image source: http://www.viarural.com.ar

 

 
Carreñana see Asturian Valley
 
Caucasian, also known as Kavkazskaya, Transcaucasian
This breed is named for the northern part of the mountain range that separates Europe and Asia. Caucasian cattle are hardy mountain animals found from Georgia to Dagestan. They are probably related to the cattle of Asia Minor with which they share the characteristics of raised withers and a low back.

Pure Caucasian animals are black to gray-brown.[Oklahoma State University]

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Ch'in-ch'uan see Qinchuan
 
Chad see Kuri
 
Channi
The Channi is one of the premium draft breeds of Pakistan and India. [Oklahoma State University]
 
Charbray
The Charbray is the results of the blending of two breeds, the Charolais and the Brahman. The Charbray is 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Brahman. The hump of the Brahman is almost non-existent, but the loose skin and enlarged dewlap are indications of the Bos indicus blood in this breed.

The Charbray is a large, very rugged breed that is heavily muscled in the loin and quarters. They have been well accepted in those areas where cattle carrying at least some Brahman breeding are desired because of hot and humid conditions.

Charbray is a large to moderately sized breed with very good growth rates on their calves. The calves are generally light tan when born but usually lighten to a creamy white in a few weeks. The Charbray bull is reported to be structurally sound and have the ability to travel the distances required of bulls in hot humid environments. They have been selected for clean, tight sheaths, fertility and early testicular development. The Charbray female is also said fertile and early maturing, reaching puberty at 14-17 months and calving at or near two years of age with rapid rebreeding and good milk production.

In research at Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center, McGregor, Texas, Charbray out-performed all other breeds tested for a 180-day weaning weight-both as a straightbred calf and when Charbray bulls were used on seven different breeds of dams.

Sources indicate the Charbray calves show excellent performance in the feedlot. Their resistance to heat, humidity, parasites and diseases is to their benefit in southern feedlots. They grow rapidly and have outstanding feed converting ability. They reach slaughter weights at 12 to 15 months and produce lean, yield grade 1 and 2 carcasses that require little or no fat trimming. [Oklahoma State University]. Images from Google Images

 
Charolais
The Charolais originated in west-central to southeastern France, in the old French provinces of Charolles and neighboring Nievre. The exact origins of the Charolais are lost to us but it must have been developed from cattle found in the area. Legend has it that white cattle were first noticed in the region as early as 878 A.D., and by the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were well and favorably known in French markets, especially at Lyon and Villefranche. Selection developed a white breed of cattle which, like other cattle of continental Europe, were used for draft, milk and meat.

The cattle were generally confined to the area in which they originated until the French Revolution. But, in 1773, Claude Mathieu, a farmer and cattle producers from the Charolles region, moved to the Nievre province, taking his herd of white cattle with him. The breed flourished there, so much so that the improved cattle were known more widely as Nivemais cattle for a time than by their original name of Charolais.

One of the early influential herds in the region was started in 1840 by the Count Charles de Bouille. His selective breeding led him to set up a herd book in 1864 for the breed at Villars near the village of Magny-Cours. Breeders in the Charolles vicinity established a herd book in 1882. The two societies merged in 1919, with the older organization holding the records of the later group into their headquarters at Nevers, the capital of the Nievre province.

The French have long selected their cattle for size and muscling. They selected for bone and power to a greater extent than was true in the British Isles. The French breeders stressed rapid growth in addition to cattle that would ultimately reach a large size. These were men that wanted cattle that not only grew out well but could be depended upon for draft power. Little attention was paid to refinement, but great stress was laid on utility.

The Charolais of France are white in color, horned, long bodied, and good milkers with a general coarseness to the animal not being uncommon.
Introduction to the United States

Soon after the First World War, a young Mexican industrialist of French name and ancestry, Jean Pugibet, brought some of the French cattle to his ranch in Mexico. He had seen the Charolais cattle during World War I while serving as a French army volunteer and was impressed by their appearance and productivity. He arranged for a shipment of two bulls and 10 heifers to Mexico in 1930. Two later shipments in 1931 and 1937 increased the total number to 37 - eight bulls and 29 females. Not long after the last shipment, Pugibet died and no further imports were attempted.

The first Charolais to come into the United States from Mexico are believed to be two bulls, Neptune and Ortolan, which were purchased from Pugibet by the King Ranch in Texas and imported in June 1936. Later imports of bulls were owned by some of the early "pioneers" in the industry: Harl Thomas, Fred W. Turner, C.M. "Pete" Frost, M.G. Michaelis Sr., and I.G. "Cap" Yates, all of Texas, J.A. "Palley" Lawton of Louisiana, and others.

In the mid-1940s an outbreak of Hoof and Mouth Disease occurred in Mexico. As a result, a treaty between the United States, Canada and Mexico set up a permanent quarantine against cattle coming into any of these countries from Europe or any country in which Hoof and Mouth Disease was known to exist. This barred any further importation of French Charolais on this continent until 1965 when Canada opened the import doors via rigid quarantine both in France and in Canada.
Development in the United States

Until the mid-1960s, all the Charolais in Mexico, the United States and Canada were descendants of this initial Pugibet herd. Due to the limited number of original animals and the import restrictions which were in place, they have been crossed on other cattle in an upgrading process. Because of the use of the upgrading process few of the Charolais cattle currently found in the United State are of pure French breeding. With the lightening of the import restrictions in Canada in the mid-1960's fullblood Charolais were again imported from France. This allowed for the importation of new bloodlines from France. This meant new genetic material for tightly-bred Charolais pedigrees of the time. Several breeding herds were estabilished in Canada, as well as the island of Eleuthera, in the Bahamas. Japan, England and Ireland also imported purebred Charolais directly from France. Offspring from these herds were later imported to the United States.

American Charolais are referred to as "purebred" or "recorded" depending upon the percentage of known Charolais blood. The term purebred is used on those that carry 31/32 or more Charolais blood and those less than 31/32 can be referred to as recorded. People wishing to develop a herd will still find it possible to upgrade, using purebred Charolais sires, a foundation cow herd of one of the other cattle breeds or their crosses. Five generations of purebred bulls are required to produced the 31/32 level for classification as "purebred". Sires used in the grading-up process must be registered. The offspring from the first as well as succeeding generations must be registered as "recorded" until they reach the 31/32 level at which time they are referred to as purebred.

It has been said that no other breed has impacted the North American beef industry so significantly as the introduction of Charolais. The Charolais came into widespread use in the United States cattle industry at a time when producers were seeking larger framed, heavier cattle than the traditional British breeds. The increased use on the range indicates that the cows have performed well under a variety of environmental conditions. Their ability to walk, graze aggressively in warm weather, withstand reasonable cold, and raise heavy calves has drawn special praise from many that have them. Bulls have developed a well-earned reputation when used in grading-up for herd improvement. This is especially noted when they are used in herds where size and ruggedness are lacking

Charolais are white or creamy white in color, but the skin carries appreciable pigmentation. The hair coat is usually short in summer but thickens and lengthens in cold weather. Charolais is a naturally horned beef animal. But through the breeding-up program, where naturally polled breeds were sometimes used as foundation animals, polled Charolais have emerged as an important part of the breed. Charolais cattle are large with mature bulls weighing from 2,000 to well over 2,500 pounds and cows weigh from 1,250 to over 2,000 pounds.[Oklahoma State University]

 
Chianina
The Chianina (pronounced kee-a-nee-na) may well be one of the oldest breeds of cattle in existence. They were praised by the Georgic poets, Columella and Vergil, and were the models for Roman sculptures.

The breed originated primarily in the west central part of Italy and was found in a wide variety of environmental conditions. Because of this, the cattle vary in size and type from region to region. The largest representatives of the breed, from the plains of Arezzo and Siena, have supplied most of the foundation stock that has been used in the United States and Canada. The name comes from the Chiana Valley in the province of Tuscany in Central Italy.

Until recent times the Chianina were used primarily as draft animals in their homeland. With the advent of modern mechanized farming practices they selection emphasis has been placed on the breeds ability to produce beef. The earlier selection for work animals had produced a very large breed with considerable length of leg, good action, and heavy muscling. Good dispositions were also desired in the draft animals. The later selections for beef production has maintained the size of the breed and improved the rate of growth.

U.S. servicemen, stationed in Italy during World War II, discovered Chianina. In 1971, Chianina genetics were introduced to the U.S. when the first semen was imported from Italy. Diaceto I was the first Italian fullblood bull to be collected. The first Chianina born in the U.S. was a black half-blood Chianina x Angus/Holstein bull calf. He was born January 31, 1972, at the Tannehill Ranch, King City, CA.

For the first few years, Chianina genetics were attainable only through semen. United States Department of Agriculture regulations prohibited the importation of cattle from countries having Foot and Mouth disease, and Italy was one of those countries. A private quarantine station was established in Italy where semen was collected, processed and shipped to breeders in the U.S. For a one year period, 17 young Chianina bulls were admitted and their semen collected.

Another avenue for obtaining fullblood Chianina semen was from Canadian breeders. Although Italian Chianina were not allowed to move into the U.S. from Canada, U.S. breeders could import semen. In 1973, Italian fullblood Chianina were exported from Canada into this country.
Physical Characteristics:
Fullblood Chianina have short hair that varies from white to steel gray in color. Bulls are often a darker gray around their front ends. Both sexes have black pigmented skin, points and mucosa. The short horns curve forward and are usually black in the younger animals but become lighter, beginning at the base, as the animals mature.

The most noticeable characteristic of the breed is the extensive and well-defined muscling. The shoulders, back and rear quarters are especially well formed. The legs are longer than most breeds and the bodies are not proportionally as long as some breeds that have shorter legs. The faces are rather long and straight. These characteristics give a distinctive appearance

The breed is often referred to as a "terminal" breed by cattlemen. This infers that the primary use of the breed is as the sire to animals which will all be marketed. The herds they are used in are frequently crossbred and the Chianina bulls provide an outstanding growth rate in the offspring of these crossbred females.

Cows of the breed often have small udders and are not noted for their milk production. This is not surprising as they were originally valued for draft and later for meat production.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Chinampo
The Chinampo is found in Southern California and Mexico.

Criolo type; usually white with black markings.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Chinchuan', Chinchwan see Qinchuan
 
Chinese Black-and-White, also known as Chinese Black Pied
Chinese black-and-White dairy cattle were first introduced to some large cities of China in the 1870's, from USA, UK, Germany, Canada and Japan, and differed in body size and conformation according to country of orgin. Large type Holsteins have been imported from USA since 1945, after the Second World War; Dutch Black Pied have been introduced from the Netherlands since 1950. Purebred bulls were used in grading-up on local cows, continuous selective breeding being practiced amoung superior crossbred offspring for generations. Thus developed, the Chinese Black-and-White is now distributed throughout the country.

Body Measurements

Body size of the Chinese Black-and-White varies according to the orgin of sires used in crossbreeding, and the cattle may be roughly grouped into three types; large, medium, and small. Large type cows, with an average height of 169 cm, mainly originated from the American and Canadian Holsein; the medium type, with an average height of 133 cm, are primarily developed from the Japanese and German Black-and-White, while the small type, with and average body height of 130 cm, are offspring from the Friesian sires of the Netherlands. The crossbreds are intermingled, however, and no definite ancestors can now be distinctly traced.

Milk Production

The Black-and-White Dairy Cattle Association estimated an average of 4461 kg per lactation for 270,000 mature cows.

The highest individual record has been 16,090 kg (305-day basis) by Cow No. 1098 in her 4th lactation at the East Suburbs Dairy Farm, Beijing, in 1970. The highest lifetime record has been 100,897 kg of milk in 3721 days over 10 lactations by Cow No. 644 from the Zhongshan Dairy Farm, Nanjing. Another two cows from the East Suburbs Farm, Beijing, each gave a total milk production of more than 100,000 kg of milk in 11 and 13 lactations respectively.

Average fat percentages are 3.3 and 3.4.

Meat Production

An average dressing percentage of 51 and a meat percentage of 39 were obtained from 8 mature cows at the Central China Agriculture College, Wuhan. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Cholistani
The Cholistani is a multi-purpose breed, being used for both meat and milk and as a draft animal. They are Zebu or Bos indicus cattle and are found in the Cholistan desert in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cholistani are usually speckled red, brown or black. They are of recent origin and are thought to have been derived from the crossing of Sahiwal with the local cattle[Oklahoma State University].
 
Coastal Polled see Romosinuano
 
Cornigero de la costa see Costeño con Cuernos (below)
 
Corriente
The Corriente can be traced back to the first cattle brought to the new world by the Spanish as early as 1493. These cattle were hardy breeds chosen especially to withstand the ocean crossing and adapt to their new land. They were brought to the West Indies and south Florida, as well as to Central and South America. Over the centuries the descendants of these cattle bred for different purposes - milk, meat and draft animals. They also adapted through natural selection to the various regions in which they lived. Eventually, their descendants spread across the southern U.S. and up the coast of California.

In the early 1800's, European and other breeds were introduced to the new world, and by the 1900's many ranchers in the Americas were upgrading their herds with modern beef cattle. Nearly pure descendants of the original Spanish cattle almost disappeared, but some managed to survive with little human care or intervention in remote areas of Central and South America, and in very limited numbers in some areas of the southern U.S.

Today there is evidence of a worldwide growing interest in preserving various strains of these hardy, native cattle. Cattle associations in Spain, South America and Florida are making efforts similar to the N.A.C.A.'s to recognize their attributes, though few actually support registries.

The Name "Corriente": In Central and South America, the various descendants of the early Spanish cattle are generally referred to as "Criollo." In parts of northern Mexico, they are often called "Corriente," although this term is frequently used for any small cattle of indiscriminate breeding and not just for the type of cattle recognized by the N.A.C.A. "Corriente" became the most common term used at the border to refer to the cattle purchased for rodeo use. Consequently, most North American cattlemen, ropers and doggers know this name, and it was chosen by the founders of the N.A.C.A. to be used for this registry.

John E. Rouse, in his book, World Cattle, Vol. III, Cattle of North America, explains the names used in Mexico.

"Descendants of the original Spanish cattle, little influenced by modern breeds, are now seen only in the remote parts of the country. These are generally known as Criollo cattle, although in the state of Sonora the term Corriente is more common, and in Baja California the word Chinampo is used. All these terms, meaning "common cattle" or "cattle of the country" are applied to more or less pure descendants of the Spanish cattle, as well as to the indiscriminate mixtures of these and more recently introduced breeds.

In Florida, the few remaining small, native cattle - cousins of the Mexican Corriente are called Scrub cattle or Cracker cattle, and similar cattle in Louisiana are called Swamp cattle.

Regardless of the name, the N.A.C.A. has made great inroads toward defining, describing and preserving these cattle as a specific breed. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Costeño con Cuernos Also Known As: Andaluz, CCC, Cornigero de la costa, Sinuano de cuernos
The Costeño con Cuernos are of the Criollo type and were developed from Spanish cattle as a draft animal and milk production. The breed is usually red or orange, sometimes chestnut, with lyre shaped horns.

Cows weight approximately 500 kg at maturity and bulls 700 to 750 kg. The Romosinuano breed of northern Columbia was developed from this breed.[Oklahoma State University]



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