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Breeds of Cows Directory: "E": East Anatolian Red - Evolène

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia


Name, Description
East Anatolian Red, Also known by: Dogu Anadolu Kirmizisi
East Anatolian Red Cattle(EARC) which represents 10.02% of the cattle population of a region with 1,243,482 animals (Emsen, 1993). EARC are well suited to the harsh climate, poor pasture and severe conditions that are the characteristics of the hills and uplands of East Anatolia which is 1300-2000 m above sea level with an average winter temperature of -15oC and annual rainfall of 350-400 mm. EARC generally used as a dual purpose breed. After the introduction of the highly productive breeds in terms of milk and meat yield (Brown Swiss and Simmental) farmers have showed great interest in these breeds and their crosses with EARC. These trends and crossing of native breed cows therefore has had a negative effect on the population of native breeds as well as EARC. This breed has been taken under the control at East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute as a Genetic resource in 1991 as a result of the decreasing population.

Common color of the EARC is light red, although color varies from light to dark red. EARC is highly resistant to cold temperatures and severe conditions and is also very well adapted physically to derive benefit from short and poor quality pasture. The hooves of the EARC are small, dense compact. The tip is narrow and sharp allowing the EARC to control its momentum and balance while grazing on step and rock terrain. Average mature weight ranges from 250-300 kg. Calving rate for EARC is about %80 percent in village conditions and most calves (%60-65) born between the 15th of February and 15th of April. Birth weight of calves averages 18 kg (Akbulut and Ulutas, 1994). The average lactation period and milk yields are 170 days and 700-800 kg with a 5-8% fat content respectively. Liveweight gain and feed conversion efficiency of the EARC and its crosses ranged changing from 616-1009 g and 5.94-9.6 kg respectively according to age and method of feeding..[Oklahoma State University]

Eastland see Red Polled Østland
Einfarbig Gelbes Hohenvich see Gelbvieh
Enderby Island
Decended from Shorthorn cattle originally introduced to this small sub-antartic island by the whalers in the 1800's, this species has able to survive on a cold, wind-swept island by eating Kelp (seaweed). In mid-1980 the Enderby Cattle - as they are now called were brought to the public's attention by New Zealand's Department of Conservation because they had nearly wiped out the island's flora.

In the mid-1990s only one cow, ‘Lady’, survived from a feral herd of almost fifty – descendants of farm animals introduced onto subantarctic Enderby Island in 1894. Lady was rescued from Enderby Island and taken to mainland New Zealand in February 1993, after the rest of the herd had been culled for conservation reasons; she has since been the subject of intensive scientific research – including cloning – in an effort to save the breed. (A heifer calf taken from Enderby Island at the same time, died shortly after being recovered.) By early 2002, Lady; a bull ‘Derby’ (Lady’s son produced by embryo transplant in 1998, using semen recovered from Enderby Island during the culling operation); and three cloned heifers, all in the care of a New Zealand veterinary surgeon, represented the total population of Enderby Island cattle in the world. In 2002, heifer calves sired by Derby were born to two of the cloned heifers, but in 2003 another two calves were born dead. In September 2004, both the 2002 heifers and one of the original clones were in calf to the bull Derby. Another of the clones had died.

Many of the Enderby cattle – including all the currently existing animals – were black and white, and physically they most closely resembled the cattle of the Shetland Islands; this may have been an adaptation to the harsh subantarctic environment. Anecdotal evidence says that the cattle originally introduced to Enderby Island were British Shorthorns.
DNA testing of the Enderby cattle was carried out in 2002 and the results compared with seven other breeds: Angus, Friesian, Belted Galloway, Hereford, Shetland, Danish Shorthorn and Jersey. All except the Jersey were eliminated as not being related, and while the Jersey was the most likely contender of the breeds with which comparisons were made, the results did not prove that the Enderby cattle were of Jersey stock. No genotype data for British Shorthorns was available for comparison.[Oklahoma State University]

English Longhorn, Also known by: Longhorn, Historical Synonyms: Dishley, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire
The English Longhorn originated in northwest and central England and Ireland. They are used primarily for meat production.

The English Longhorn became the first breed, in the mid-1700s, that were improved by Robert Bakewell of Leicestershire, England. Bakewell pioneered the use of inbreeding technique in cattle selection. He selected the English Longhorn for quick growth and heavy hindquarters. His selection efforts led the breed to become the most widely used throughout England and Ireland until it was surpasses by the Shorthorn breed in the early 1800s.

The breed declined rapidly for nearly 200 years until it was rescued by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust. The efforts of RBST in 1980 resulted in 255 registered English Longhorns.

The English Longhorn is red-gray-brown or brindled and all animals are whitebacked. Cows range in height from 130 to 140 cm and weigh 500 to 600 kg. Males average 150 cm in height and 1000 kg in weight.

[Oklahoma State University]
Estonian Red
In the middle of the 1800s the local Estonian cattle were crossed with the Angeln breed. Later to improve the crosses Danish Red animals were used. The aim was to form a breed with high milk yield and high fat content. The first Estonian Red animals were entered in the herdbook in 1885.

The head is medium in size, with fairly short and narrow forehead. The neck is of medium size. The chest is often narrow and of medium depth. The withers and back are level; the rump is wide and of medium length. The legs are of medium length and correctly set. The skeleton is fairly strong. The udder is of medium size, glandular. Coat color is light or dark red; that of the bulls is darker. Body measurements (in cm) are: withers height 127.5, chest depth 70, chest width 45.5, oblique body length 157.9, heart girth 195.6, cannon bone girth 18.3. Better cows have a wide barrel with a solid skeleton and muscles. The live weight of calves at birth is 31-33 kg; cows weigh 450-550 kg (maximum 780 kg); mature bulls weight 800-900 kg (maximum 1000 kg). The milk yield of 164,900 evaluated cows was 3456 kg with 3.92% fat. The production of Estonian Red cattle at 77 breeding farms is as follows: average milk yield per cow 3784 kg, fat content 3.98%, protein content 3.30%. In 12 high producing herds the average milk yield per cow during a 305-day lactation amounts to 4127-5029 kg, and fat content is 3.90-4.18%. There are 25 record holders in these herds: including cow 5338 - 5th lactation, 9610 kg milk, 4.14% fat; cow 4519 - 7th lactation, 8554 kg of milk, 4.47% fat; cow 2431 - 2nd lactation, 7806 kg milk, 4.65% fat.

Improvement of the Estonian Red cattle is being carried out by pure breeding and by crossbreeding with the Danish Red and the Angeln. The new type with Angeln blood should have the following performance: milk yield not less than 7000 kg with 4.0% fat, milking rate 1.9 kg per minute, live weight of cows over 600 kg. According to the census the total population of the Estonian Red breed in 1980 was 492,000. This breed accounts for 63.3% of all cattle in Estonia.

[Oklahoma State University]
Eringer see Herens
The Evolène Cow as a small, temperamental and mountain-going breed is strong in milk production and is found in the side valleys of Wallis.

The Evolène Cow is regarded as an ancient breed of the Wallis. Sources extend back into the previous century, when Evolène and Eringer stood for the same breed. Already then competition existed, producing a well performing, but less robust and less Alps suitable Braunvieh. These animals were earlier frequently variegated. The variegated coloring was excluded however in the breeding of the Eringer, and in this way the present black, seldom red color was bred out. Only a small stock of variegated, lighter and milk-producing Evolène cows was able to survive in the side valleys of the Rhone. Thanks to a few hard-nosed Welschland breeders, the cow was protected from extinction. Today the Evolène can be found extensively in Upper Wallis (Oberwallis). Earlier Evolène cows were exported to Austria and the Aosta Valley and crossed with the breeds found there like the Tuxer or the Valdostana.

Characteristics of the animal: The present-day Evolène is an easily satisfied and vigorous animal. Its coloring is mostly red, more seldom black with white spots on the belly, tail and often the back and forehead. It is a dual-purpose breed (milk and meat). This very small cow has a very good ratio of body weight to milk production. Thanks to its small limbs with strong, but thin bones, the Evolène has a very good slaughter yield. This cow is very mountain-going, temperamental and aggressive. The pretty color, the delicate form, as well as its reliability bring the breeder much joy.

Breeding Organization: This cow, viewed in Wallis as an artifact of culture, was seized upon by several Upper Wallis initiators and bred with much care. It is said to be maintained in its homeland, the Wallis, as the Evolène Cow in its beautiful color and form and with its own characteristics. With the help of Pro Specie Rara a herd book was assembled in 1994. In January 1995 an association/society was founded. [Oklahoma State University]


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