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Breeds of Cows Directory: "G": Gabaruyé - Guzerat

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia


Gabaruyé see Maure
Galician Blond, Also Known As: Rubia gallega
The Galician Blond are of the North Spanish type and are used primarily for meat production. Their normal coloration is cream to golden red. Originating in northwestern Spain, the original type, which was found in Monteroso and Carballino, is almost extinct. Simmental, Swiss Brown and South Devon have been used at different times to improve the breed during the 1900s.[Oklahoma State University]
Historian's writings differ somewhat, but upon three points they generally agree regarding the origin of the Galloway. The breed is recognized to be a very ancient one, with obscure origins shrouded in antiquity and its' name derived from the word Gallovid or Gaul. The Gauls were the native inhabitants of the regality known as the Province of Galloway. This province once comprised six shires(counties) ... Dumfries, Lanark, Renfew, Ayr, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown in the very southernmost extremity of Scotland's Lowlands. The cattle of the region were said to be dark, smooth-polled, wavy-haired with undercoats like beaver's fur and for centuries they went unnamed, referred to only as the black cattle of Galloway. From this coastal environment of winds and damp cold, combined with an undulating terrain of moors, granitic hills, heathery mountain ranges and fertile glens ... emerged the Galloway breed of cattle.

Though much has been written of the history of British cattle since the middle of the 18th century, the period immediately before that is almost without a record. Historian Hector Boece (1570), writing about the Galloway, says, "In this region ar mony fair ky and oxin of qubilk the flesh is right delicius and tender." Ortelius, the historian writing in 1573, says, "In Carrick (then part of Galloway) are oxen of large size, whose flesh is tender, sweet and juicy."

The Galloway breed of cattle became important during the Scoto-Saxon period, and the breeders of Galloway enjoyed the export of cheese and hides. Later the cattle were sold in considerable numbers to English farmers who sent them to Smithfield market after a fattening period on English grass. It is said that the Galloway breed was never crossed with the other breeds. It is not known where the polled character was acquired by the Galloway breed because in its beginning many of the cattle were horned. However, many writers during the last part of the 1700s and early 1800s mentioned polled Galloway cattle, and the breeders decided they liked the polled characteristic and started selecting their cattle for the character. Most of the early cattle in the Galloway district were black, but red, brown, brindles, and cattle with white markings were not uncommon.

In 1851, a fire at the Highland Agricultural Museum at Edinburgh destroyed all the historical records and pedigrees of the Galloway collected prior to that time. Eleven years later (1862), a Polled Herd Book was published and it included the Galloway, Aberdeen, and Angus breeds. In 1878 the Galloway Cattle Society of Great Britain initiated its own volume of pedigrees. The first exportation of Galloways to North America came in 1853 to the Graham brothers of Toronto, Canada. Michigan State College, Lansing, imported the first Galloways to America in 1866. The American Galloway Breeders' Association organized in 1882 and Volume I of the North American Galloway Herd, published in 1883, listed American and Canadian Galloways.

William McCombie, (pioneer Scottish Angus & Shorthorn breeder) said, "The Galloway undoubtedly has many great qualifications. On poor land they are unrivaled, on land so poor our Aberdeens could not subsist upon it. There is no other breed worth more by the pound weight than a first-class Galloway."
The most visible characteristic of the Galloway is their long hair coat. Serving a dual purpose, the coarse outer coat sheds wind and rain, while the soft, fur-like under coat provides insulation and waterproofing. The color of the coat ranges from the more popular Black, to Dun (silver through brown), Red, White (with dark pigment about the eyes, nose, ears and teats), and the Belted (black, dun or red, with a white band around the middle).

Mature bull weights range from 1,700 to 2,300 pounds with an average being 1,800 pounds. The mature cow generally weighs from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds with the average being around 1, 250 pounds. Calf birth weights average from 75-80 pounds.

"Galloway cattle are generally very docile," quotes William Youatt, (English researcher, scientist, veterinary surgeon, historian & standard writer on cattle in the early 1800s.) He goes on to say, "This is a most valuable point about them in every respect. It is rare to find even a bull furious or troublesome." Galloways are very courageous however, and if annoyed by dogs or wild animals, they will act in concert, by forming a crescent and jointly attacking. There are claims that one or two Galloways in a field of sheep prevent any danger from dogs.
What Does the Galloway Breed Offer Today’s Beef Industry?
The Galloway, unrivaled as a grazing breed, utilizes coarse grasses and browse frequently shunned by other breeds. Furthermore, their ability to produce a high quality beef product directly from grass, has true economic value in that it is not necessary to feed grains to 'finish' them. The Galloway steer, whether grass or grain fattened, can produce the ideal 600-750 pound carcass.

The Galloway is a maternal breed. The cows are easy calvers, while the calves themselves are hardy, vigorous and have a 'will to live' that gets them up and nursing quickly. The Galloway is long-lived, with many cows producing regularly into their teens and beyond. This trait alone can determine much of the economics and efficiency of any cattle operation.

Due to the breed's naturally dense, insulating hair coat the Galloway does not layer on excessive outside fat, which would only end up on the butcher's floor at slaughter time. Results of a multi-breed research project conducted by a Canadian Government Experiment Station, reveal that the Galloway ranks second only to the Buffalo in hair density tests. The robust, hardy nature of the Galloway has never been disputed. Though considered a breed for northern climates, the Galloway has been found to acclimate amazingly well to warmer regions.

The claim that Galloway beef is juicy, tender, and flavorful is substantiated in recent USDA tests of Galloway crossbreds, when compared with eleven other breeds. Results of the Cycle IV Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) Program at the USDA Meat Animal Research Center (MARC), Clay Center, Nebraska, showed the Galloway crosses placing at the top of the chart for flavor, juiciness and tenderness.

Today's Galloway breeder recognizes current beef industry trends, seeing the Galloway's potential role in crossbreeding and composite breed programs. The American Galloway Breeders' Association attuned to industry needs, offers an Appendix Registry system in addition to and kept separately from their purebred registry program. Both systems, as well as the EPD program are computerized. Additionally, the AGBA sponsors a National Show and Sale, hold annually in conjunction with their Convention, the third week of October, in Billings, Montana. Additionally, the AGBA arranges for ultrasound measurements for carcass traits, as well as measurements for frame size, pelvic capacity and scrotal circumference. [Oklahoma State University]

Ganado Bravo see Fighting Bull
The Gaolao cattle fit into the group of shorthorned, white or light-gray in color, with a long coffin-shaped skull, orbital arches not prominent and with a face slightly convex in profile. It is also observed that the native home of the breed is located along the route taken by the Rig Vedic Aryans from the Northern passes through Central India to the South. There is a close similarity between the Ongole and the Gaolao except the latter are much lighter, with greater agility.

It is said that the Marathas developed this breed into a fast-trotting type suitable for quick army transport in the hilly areas of Gondwana, Madhya Pradesh. It was used mainly for military purposes by the Maratha army when invading the local Gond Kingdom. Old historical records show that the breed had fair milk-producing capacity, but during the last two centuries selection has been directed mainly towards developing a capacity for quick draft. The breed is found principally in the districts of Wardha, Nagpur and Chindwara.
Gaolao animals are of medium height, or rather light build and tend to be narrow and long. The head is markedly long and narrow with a straight profile usually tapering towards the muzzle and somewhat broader at the base of the horns. The forehead is usually flat, though it appears to recede at the top, giving a slightly convex appearance. The eyes are almond-shaped and placed slightly at angles. The ears are of medium size and are carried high. The horns are short and stumpy, blunt at the points and commonly slope slightly backwards.

The neck is short, with a moderately well-developed hump, which is usually loose and hangs on one side. The hind quarters are slightly drooping. Limbs are straight and muscular. Hooves are of medium size, hard and durable, and suited to hard road and hillside work. The dewlap is large but the sheath is only moderately developed. The skin is thin but loose. The tail is comparatively short, reaching only a little below the hocks. Females are usually white and males gray over the neck, hump and quarters.

[Oklahoma State University]
This breed is found in the region of Gascony in southwest France and is related to the Blonde d' Aquitaine and the Piedmontese. There are two type of Gascon cattle recognized, à muqueuses noires and aréolé. The characteristics of the Gascon, forged by generations of use for animal haulage, make it a particularly effective suckler dam in pure breed or in cross breeding in low cost production systems. The original birthplace of the breed extends from the Central Pyrenees to the Garonne Basin. The 23,000 females of the foundation stock there developed exceptional hardiness which enables them to adapt everywhere, producing officially recognised quality beef (Label rouge Boeuf Gascon).


This breed has been developed into a beef breed that is widely used in its native region. Population in France: 22983 cows, 10816 of them recorded. Mature cows weigh 550 to 700 kg and stand 135 cm at the shoulder; bulls average 145 cm in height and 800 to 950 kg in weight.


The quality of its hooves enables the Gascon to walk long distances towards the tops of the summer pastures in the Pyrenees when grass becomes more difficult to find. These hooves also enable them to withstand 6 to 7 winter months in traditional tethered housing or as young animals being finished on slatted floors. A study carried out by the INRA shows that the Gascon is the animal with the best resistance to heat. Used to being exposed to very intense bright light, the eye of the Gascon is protected by black-rimmed eyelids. In spite of the presence of multitudes of insects, the number of cases of keratitis during the summer period is minimal. Each winter, numerous all year outdoor farming systems bear witness to the fact that all the Gascon herds require is an area of land which is naturally protected from the prevailing winds.

Nowadays, a herd must be viable and recoup its costs. A herd which ages well avoids excessive need for replacement stock. So the heifers are destined to be sold and generate added value. The Gascon responds to this requirement, as breed selection has always used families with great longevity. To make up for winter rations consisting of various types of hay which are not always very appetising or not very nutritious, the Gascon accepts and makes optimal use of different diets. In spite of difficult environmental conditions, 75% of the cows have a calving interval of less than 380 days, which allows for the production on average of one calf per year. The majority of the females calve at between 32 and 36 months, and they remain in phase with the period at summer pasture. Farmers in regions of arable farming manage the Gascon in a more intensive manner and have a system of calvings at between 24 and 30 months. 98% of the calvings require no assistance or just simple assistance, in both pure breed and in crossing. Official trials identified spectacular finishing results for Gascon store calves (less than 23 % feed cost, Livestock Institute 1988).

Selection and expansion:

The first genealogical book was made official in 1894 then adapted into the UPRA from 1974. The Two type of Gascon Cattle, “à muqueuses noires” and “aréole” were combined in same herdbook in 1955 but now are separated since 1999. Presently, 330 motivated farmer-breeders are grouped together in the Gascon UPRA. The foundation stock represents more than 30% of the total population of the cows. The selection scheme for males responds to the requirements for natural service and for artificial insemination. To consolidate the hardy characteristics of the breed, 2/3 of the young males evaluated at the Gascon National Centre have spent the summer season in areas situated at an altitude of 1,700 metres. The computerised breed file enables breeding animals to be qualified according to defined objectives and this applies to herds located in several countries of the European Union. With prizes in the Beef Quality Trophy at the Concours Général Agricole in Paris, the reputation of Gascon beef has spread far beyond the confines of the Pyrenees. Today, the Gascon occupies the regions of the Midi-Pyrenees and the Languedoc-Roussillon where it has become the largest breed in several departments.

The Gascon breed is progressively spreading throughout Europe: Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic. Semen is being exported more and more every year to South America and exports are planned to African countries. [Oklahoma State University]


The 1960's was the golden era for purebred cattle breeding in the United States. It was a time when large numbers of cattle were recorded in breed registries.

Then came the 70's and 80's when European Cattle or exotics were introduced to purebred breeders. Elaborate facilities and high priced cattle sales were signs of the times. These were cattle with funny names and multiple colors from the shores of Europe. Simmental, Limousin, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina and others were becoming common breeds in our pastures.

The beef cattle industry is now in an era of biotechnology. Revolutionary changes are taking place and many new ideas are being presented. The 1990's will be known as the era of Composites. The increased competition for market share from the hog and poultry industries are forcing us to produce a more efficient and competitive animal.

The role of the cow/calf producer has no changes. The key to the producer's success is basically as it has been in the past:

1. Production: a calf every 12 months from each cow
2. Weaning weights: as many pounds of calf produced per acre of land as economically practical.
3. Cost of production: cost per pounds of calf produced as low as possible while maintaining productivity.

The Gelbray Breed of cattle is in a unique position to capitalize on these traditional goals. The combination of Gelbvieh, Red Angus and Brahman genetics has proven Gelbray to be a maternal breed with the ability to sire slaughter calves suitable for feedlots and packing plants in the United States.

The most important trait in any breed of Cattle is reproduction. Reproductive performance is 10 times more important than growth traits and growth traits are five times more important than carcass traits. We cannot forget that pounds of calf weaned per cow exposed puts money in the pockets of the commercial cattleman. This point is most important to breeders and must always be considered.

Calving problems in Beef Cattle are predominately related to breed of dam effect. Thus, Gelbray are able to control the size of their calves simply because the Brahman influence further supports this strong maternal breed. It has also been documented that Brahman (Bos-Indicus) female will typically produce a calf that weighs about 6 1/2% of her body weight, whereas the Bos-Taurus such as Gelbvieh and Angus cows will produce between 7 to 8% of their body weight in calf birth. Calving ease and maternal traits are of interest to all cattle producers. Unassisted births are the rule - not the exception.

The environment makes raising cattle more difficult in some regions. The southern states find summer heat, insects and other pests are tough on cattle. The northern states find the cold winters and limited forage hard on cattle. That is why producers have utilized composite breeding to develop environmental adaptability and hardiness in the Commercial Beef Industry.

The combination of Gelbvieh, Red Angus and Brahman cattle, with its proven reproductive efficiency and pre-weaning performance, will also perform post-weaning. In addition, Gelbray will produce a carcass that is market acceptable. Its economic traits are:

1. Fertility -- Gelbvieh & Red Angus
2. Early Puberty -- Gelbvieh
3. Calving Ease -- Brahman
4. Milk Production & Mothering Ability -- Gelbvieh, Red Angus & Brahman
5. Efficiency -- Gelbvieh, Red Angus & Brahman
6. Beef Production/ Cutability & Quality -- Gelbvieh & Red Angus
7. Uniform Type & Color -- Gelbvieh & Red Angus
8. Adaptability/Survivability -- Brahman

Gelbray demonstrates the use of a cross breeding system to maintain heterosis (approximately 67% on a long term breeding program without purchasing outside animals). Animal scientists say three breed composites like Gelbray can retain 67% of the hybrid vigor they generate while other two cross breeds cannot.

The goals of the Gelbray Breed are:

1. Keep a Gelbvieh, Red Angus and Brahman composite.
2. Maintain reproductive efficiency.
3. Maintain 500+ pounds at weaning.
4. Maintain a 3+ pound gain in the feedlot.
5. Produce calves of acceptable yield grade and carcass quality.

The breeder is allowed maximum flexibility in his matings. In developing a profitable genetic program the best traits for the herd can be selected for a balanced cowherd. The blood percentages for an animal to be registerable as a Gelbray allows breeders in all regions to select cattle that will best perform in their pastures. Those percentages are:

1. Maximum 3/4 Gelbvieh -- minimum 1/4 Gelbvieh = Gelbray
2. Maximum 1/2 Red Angus -- minimum 0 Red Angus = Gelbray
3. Maximum 3/8 Brahman -- minimum 1/8 Brahman = Gelbray

A 3 Generation Pedigree is developed from each mating by the use of registered cattle. It is possible to take advantage of the Gelbray genetic difference through simple and uncomplicated matings. Some examples of one step breeding resulting in a Gelbray could be:

1. 100% Gelbvieh x 50% Red Angus x 50% Brahman = Gelbray
2. 100% Gelbvieh x 100% Red Brangus = Gelbray
3. 100% Gelbray x 50% Gelbvieh x 50% Red Angus = Gelbray

One breed cannot fit everyone's needs. Neither will a single breed be the answer. To be successful you must fit your cowherd to your ranch and put a bull on those cows that will compliment them and produce a highly marketable calf.

Gelbray combines the "right kind" of breed genetics that will allow its breeders to effectively compete for the "meat dollar". Don't forget ... the animal pedigree tells you what the animal should be and performance data tells you what the animal is.
by J. D. Roussel, PhD., Louisiana State University [Oklahoma State University]

Gelbvieh, Also Known By: Einfarbig gelbes Hohenvich, German Yellow
Gelbvieh originated in Bavaria, in southern Germany. It is believed to have been developed in the late 18th and early 19th century from self-colored Bernese and Swiss Brown cattle used on the local red or red spotted cattle. Like most European breeds the Gelbvieh was originally selected for meat, milk and work.

The breed was introduced into the United States by Carnation Genetics through the importations of semen from Germany, starting in July of 1971. The Gelbvieh is one of the European breeds which was introduced to the United States through artificial insemination programs. The American Gelbvieh Association was also organized in 1971. Like many other breeds imported during this time the breed was established by the upgrading of foundation females. Females are registered as purebred at 7/8 Gelbvieh and bulls at 15/16. To gain status as an A.I. sire in Germany, the German bulls first must excel in a battery of performance and progeny tests. Over 70% of the German calf crop is A.I.-sired; therefore, the breed is backed by a strong performance heritage. AGA has requires performance records for registration. An annual Sire Summary, Cow Recognition Program, EPDs for all animals, breed promotion, and a Commercial Marketing Program headline AGA's programs of action.

The breed is red in color, with strong skin pigmentation, and horned. Polled cattle have developed in the United States from the use of naturally hornless foundation females. Proponents of the breed claim the breed has superior fertility, calving ease, mothering ability, and growth rate of the calves.

German Angus, Also known by: Deutsches-Angus-Fleischrind, Deutsche Angus
Efforts to produce a new, more modern beef breed in Germany led to the crossing of Angus bulls with German Black Pied, German Red Pied and German Simmental. Selection is for hornlessness, good temperament, large size, meat with a lower fat content than pure Angus, and high milk yields.

They are black, dark brown, red or yellow-grey, sometimes with white markings. Females weigh 650 kg; bulls weigh 1,100 kg. [Oklahoma State University], Image: [Wikipedia]

The German Angus breed is a cattle breed that was bred in the 1950s in Germany by crossing Aberdeen Angus with different native German cattle breeds like German Black Pied Cattle, Gelbvieh, and Fleckvieh. The new breed is bigger and heavier than the original breed and has higher weight gains.

This breed is only used as beef breed in the mother cow husbandry. They are unicoloured black or red and always hornless. The breed is known by its easy calving and good nature.

In Germany the breeding is consolidated since 1990 and is booked since 2002 in one stud book together with Aberdeen Angus. There is imported still today Angus cattle from the foreign, mainly the U.S.A., for further refinement.[Wikipedia]

German Black Pied Society: Bundesanstalt f. Landwirtschaft und Ernährung
The German Black Pied Cattle is originating in the North Sea coast regions of Northern Germany and the Netherlands.

Until the 18th century the breeded cattle of diverse colours in these regions. After 1750 the black pied coloured type was dominating. But there are unicoloured red and red pied cattle, too, until today.

1878 in East Frisia (Germany) the first breeding company was founded. After that East Frisia and East Prussia (today Russia, Lithuania, and Poland) were the most important breeding regions of the breed. Later they extended over whole Northern and Middle Germany.

Since 1958 in Western Germany the breed was crossed the first time with Holstein Friesian Cattle. Since the 1960s these crossed animals were dominating, and so the German Holstein Friesian Cattle was born.

In the GDR they crossed the breed with Jersey Cattle and Holstein Friesian Cattle and created the Black Pied Dairy Cattle race.

The original breeding type was conservated in the GDR as genetic reserve. Single breeders in Western Germany and in the Netherlands could conserve the original type, too.

The German Black Pied Cattle is smaller than the Holstein Friesian Cattle with fewer milk amounts but they are fertiler and more longliving.

[Wikipedia] photos from: Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
German Red Pied, Also known by: Deutshe Rotbunte (German), Rotbuntes Niederungsvieh (German) Society: Rinderzucht Schleswig-Holstein
Development of the German Red Pied occurred simultaneously in several regions of Germany during the 1800's. In 1934 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel blood was introduced and the regional German Red Pied herdbooks were combined. Since that time the breed has slowly expanded until it was the third most number breed in the late 1970s.

These cattle are similar to, but somewhat sturdier than, Dutch Red-Pied. Predominately red animals are preferred. The cows average 135 cm in height and weigh 700 kg. Bulls are 145 cm and average 1,000 kg in weight.[Oklahoma State University], photos: Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover

German Simmental
Originating in the valley of river Simme (German: valley = tal) in Switzerland, the Simmental breed’s beginning can be traced back as far as medieval times. Systematic breeding however did not start before the early 19th century. Besides Switzerland Bavaria soon turned out to become the most important breeding area for the breed. Today the German Simmental breed has spread all over the world. In cross breeding programmes it is used on all continents. Cross breeding local breeds in North and South America as well as Africa, Asia and Australia to German Simmental has proven to effect in an increase of the meat production.


Due to it’s alpine origin, German Simmental cattle can easily cope with different kinds of climatic circumstances. Neither hot nor cold temperatures, dry or humid climates cause problems. The breed’s adaptability to varied environments and management practices is one of it’s most important features. Simple grazing provides German Simmental cattle with all that is necessary for reaching top figures in the production of either milk or meat. In Germany the total number of German Simmental cattle is 4.5 million with the biggest populations to be found in Bavaria (3.8 million head) and 650.000 in Baden-Wurttemberg. In 1998 the average German Simmental cattle herdbook cow’s performance was 6,200 kg of milk with 4.5% milkfat and 3.4% protein.


Statistics prove that the average daily gain of meat was 1.315 gramms with the percentage of meat in the slaughtered individual reaching 69,4%! These figures underline why German Simmental cattle is so popular worldwide - not only for beef-procucing industries! (source: German Simmental Breeding by Meggle)

German Yellow see Gelbvieh
Gilani see Mazandarani
The Gir is one of the principal Zebu or Bos indicus breeds in India and is used for both dairy and beef production. It has been used locally in the improvement of other breeds including the Red Sindhi and the Sahiwal. It was also one of the breeds used in the development of the Brahman breed in North America.

The Gir is distinctive in appearance, typically having a rounded and domed forehead, long pendulous ears and horns which sweep back and spiral up. Gir are generally mottled with the color ranging from red to white. They originated in southwest India in the state of Gujerat and have since spread to neighboring Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

The females average 385 kg with a height of 130 cm and the males average 545 kg and a height of 135 cm. The average milk production for the Gir is 1590 kg per lactation, with a record production of 3182 kg at 4.5% fat.[Oklahoma State University]

Their color is yellow. They originated in the late 18th century from the Swiss Brown x native. In 1890, they were united with Donnersberg to form the Glan-Donnersberg which was a variation of the Gelbvieh until 1961. Since 1950, it has been crossed with the Danish Red and has been included in the German Red since 1961.

In former times this breed was indigenous in large numbers (around 400,000 head of cattle) in the Hunsrück, in the Eifel and in the Palatinate areas of Germany. The Glan is an ancient and improved breed of cattle with outstanding beef performance. For more than 200 years it has been bred
in the southwest of Germany. Birth weights are low and the breed is rather quiet and goodhearted. The average daily gain of Glan-Breed bull calves is more than 1,200 g. The breed in general is later maturing, and therefore they are well suited to be kept in extensive fattening. The breed is currently almost extinct.

The Glan is mostly maintained in forage systems, they make good replacement females known for their milk production. Together with the now extinct Lahn, the Limpurger and the Franken, the Glan belongs to the German-Gelbvieh-Breed. As the Glan was crossbred with the Danish Red, one of the most important breeding objectives is the avoiding of progeny which show this phenotype. The objective of breeding is a one-coloured yellow neat for multiple use, with an accent on beef performance and with a lactation yield of up to 5,000 kg annually.

Lactation: In 1995 the cows that underwent a lactation test yielded 4,446 kg of milk with 4.07 % butterfat (181 kg) and 3.53 % protein (158 kg). Beef performance: The daily gain of Glan sires (Habet-sons) are: 1,354 g gross gain, 1,370 g efficieny evaluation gain, and 1,278 g net gain. The percentage
of meat in the carcass is 60 % with a quality class of U2 to R3.

Association for the Conservation and Promotion of the Glan-Breed in Germany (ACPG). [Oklahoma State University]

Gloucester, Also known by: Gloucestershire, Old Gloucester, Old Gloucestershire
Gloucester Cattle are an ancient breed, numerous in the Severn Vale as early as the 13th century. They were valued for their milk (producing double Gloucester Cheese), their beef, and for producing strong and docile oxen. However, in the last two centuries, outbreaks of disease, the introduction of other breeds, and the development of intensive farming, led to such a reduction in their numbers that by 1972 only one herd remained. Fortunately, at its dispersal sale a group of purchasers determined that the breed should survive. It has done so. The Gloucester Cattle Society was revived and, since then cattle, numbers have increased from near extinction to over 700 registered females.

The cows are docile and amenable and respond well to individual care. They take well to hand milking and make ideal house cows. They have a flat lactation curve giving an even production for up to 300 days. This is kind to their udders and helps the longevity for which they are renowned, often breeding for 12 - 15 years.

Under appropriate management, the dairy strains will average 700 gallons per heifer and 8850 gallons per cow, with average butterfat of 3.9%, protein 3.3%, lactose 4.6%, which makes their milk ideal for farmhouse cheese. Gloucester milk, when produced alongside other breeds kept in the same conditions, is found to have a consistently lower bacteria count.

Even the bulls merit the breed's reputation for docility. They are active and get cows in calf to a tight calving pattern.

Gloucester steers produce a lean, quality carcass, with sufficient marbling of fat within the meat to give excellent flavor. Calves grow fast o the high quality milk of their dams and, under intensive systems, can finish by 2 years at a good killing-out ratio of around 52-54%. When fattened on grass they should finish within 3 years.

The management of Gloucesters fits well into an extensive system. Furthermore, providing the land drains well and they have some shelter and a dry bed, they will thrive if out-wintered, growing a good protective coat.

The Gloucester is a Dial Purpose Breed and therefore attention should be paid to both milk producing characteristics and body conformation. They are black brown with black head and legs, a white tail and a white streak down the back and a white underline. They have a dark muzzle with dark skin around the eyes and nose. Cows horns are fine, wide and inclined to turn up with black tips. The males weigh 750 kg, on average, and the females weigh 500 kg.

The breed is an irreplaceable part of our living heritage which should be preserved for future gererations. The qualities of the Gloucester cattle give good reason for this preservation.[Oklahoma State University]

Goodhope Red see Jamaica Red
Greek Shorthorn
This is a rare breed is reared under extensive husbandry condition in mountain areas of the northwest regions of Greece. A meat animal also used for draft purposes, the Greek Shorthorn is of the Iberian type.

They are usually small size animals (height 0.97 – 1.14 m). The head is small with short and thin horns. The colour of the body is variant from Brown, bay, chestnut, grey and grey-black, similar to the Albanian and Busa.. The colour of the nostril, the mucous of the mouth and the hoofs is usually black. The body weight of bulls is around 300 kg and that of cows around 200 kg.

[Oklahoma State University]
Greek Steppe
The Greek Steppe breed has the characteristics of Bos Taurus Primigenius. There are very few “purebred” animal of the Greek Steppe cow, which is reared under extensive husbandry condition in the regions of northern Greece particularly Katerini and Chalkidiki (Sykia type breed). The Greek Steppe is of the Grey Steppe type.

The height of the bulls is 1.15-1.25 m and that of cows 1.10-1.15 m, respectively. The head is rather long and the horn have the characteristic shape of lyre. The color of the body is variant grey, silver-grey or and grey-black. The body weight of bulls is around 300 kg and that of cows around 250 kg.[Oklahoma State University]

Grey Hungarian see Hungarian Grey
Groningen Whiteheaded, Also Known By: Blaarkop, Groninger Blaarkop or Gronings Blaarkop (Dutch), Groninger (German), Groningue (French), Zwartblaar, Zwartwitkop, Roodblaar, Roodwitkop
Groningen Whiteheaded are typically black in color with a white head and belly. However, about 5% of the population are red rather than black. The Groningen's ancestry may be traced to the Middle Ages. The Groningen originated in what is now the northern sections of the Netherlands.

Through modern selective breeding practices and crossbreeding with Holstein and Angeln cattle, the milk yields of these animals have increased but are still lower than those of other Dutch breeds. Cows stand 132 cm and weigh 600 kg. Milk production averages 5,068 kg at 4% fat per lactation.

[Oklahoma State University]
The Isle of Guernsey, a tiny island in the English Channel off the coast of France, is the birthplace of the Guernsey cow. About 960 A.D., besieged by buccaneers and sea rovers, the Island came to the attention of Robert Duke of Normandy. He sent a group of militant monks to educate the natives to cultivate the soil and defend the land. The monks brought with them the best bloodlines of French cattle - Norman Brindles, also known as Alderneys, from the province of Isigny and the famous Froment du Leon breed from Brittany - and developed the Guernsey.

Importation to America
Introduction of the Guernsey to America occurred around September 1840, when Captain Belair of the Schooner Pilot brought three Alderney cows to the port of New York. Later, Captain Prince imported two heifers and a bull from the Island. These animals were the original stock of a great majority of the Guernseys that make up the national Guernsey herd today.

America's Guernseys
With the understanding that positive identification is crucial to preserving the purity of the breed, a group of Guernsey breeders founded the American Guernsey Cattle Club in 1877. Since then, the organization has registered over three million Guernseys. Now the American Guernsey Association, the national organization for the registration and promotion of Guernsey cattle, has introduced many other programs for the advancement of the breed.

Making Strides in Genetic Improvement
Genetically, the Guernsey of today is much different than that of 960 A.D. Due to the advent and commercialization of artificial insemination, a process by which a cow is inseminated without ever seeing a bull, a particular bull can sire thousands of offspring. This genetic improvement has been generated by a progressive, aggressive young sire program. Young bulls' semen is distributed throughout the Guernsey population until the bulls have a large enough daughter population that their offsprings' qualities are predictable. As proven bulls, these sires may have as many as 1,500 daughters in up to 400 herds. However, every six months the list of available sires is updated. At that time, new bulls with superior genetics are added and older sires lose their "active" status. This insures that the breed-wide effort to improve the Guernsey's sound genetic base continues.

Guernsey's Golden Product
The Guernsey cow is known for producing high-butterfat, high-protein milk with a high concentration of betacarotene. Being of intermediate size, Guernseys produce their high quality milk while consuming 20 to 30 percent less feed per pound of milk produced than larger dairy breeds. They are also known for having a lower projected calving interval and have a younger average age of first calf heifers than the larger breeds. Other attractive characteristics of Guernseys are their lack of any known undesirable genetic recessives and their adaptability to warmer climates.

The Guernsey is also an excellent grazer. She is a cow that is made for pasture-based milk production. Because of her grazing abilities, gentle disposition, calving ease and ability to efficiently produce milk with less feed than other breeds, she is the ideal candidate for intensive grazing. Dairy producers can realize her profit potential while reducing management costs.

The Tanbark Trail
During the summer and fall of the year, Guernsey enthusiasts from all over the United States congregate at state fairs and national shows to have their Guernseys judged. This show season is referred to as the "Tanbark Trail". Each year, approximately 200 breeders participate in three national shows which culminate in one national contest to find the Guernsey that best represents the ideal conformation of the breed.

The Guernsey Today
Data from herds enrolled in the American Guernsey Association's Dairy Herd Improvement Register program during 1992 shows the breed average to be 14,667 pounds of milk, 659 pounds of butterfat and 510 pounds of protein on a mature-equivalent basis. Today, although Guernsey breed numbers are steadily decreasing as the total dairy cow population decreases across the United States, the commitment of the AGA Board of Directors, staff and Guernsey breeders is stronger than ever. Evidence supporting the ability of the Guernsey cow to compete effectively can be found throughout the country. Take advantage of Guernseys and join others who are taking advantage of this profitable cow![Oklahoma State University]

Guzerat, Also Known By: Guzera, Gujera, Gujrati, Gusera, Guzerath
The Guzerat breed was developed from importations of the Kankrej breed from India during the time frame from 1875 until 1964.

In 1986, James O. Sanders in a review of the "History and Development of Zebu Cattle in the United States" (J. Anim. Sci. 50:1188-1200) detailed the history and importance of Zebu cattle in their native lands as well as Brazil and the U. S. Guzerat cattle, with the Nelore and Gir, are the three major Indian breeds that have had the most important impact on U.S. cattle breeding. Guzerat cattle are gray cattle of of northern India and have long, lyre shaped horns. They are among the largest cattle of India and are prized as powerful draft animals and are moderate milk producers. Guzerat cattle have short broad faces with long ears drooping and open to the front. Color varies from light gray to black at maturity. The barrel is generally lighter in color than the rest of the body, especially in bulls. Bulls tend to get darker than cows or steers. Guzerat cattle are maintained as a pure breed in India and Brazil in large numbers, with a few in the U. S. The Guzerat was the most important breed in the formation of the American Brahman.

A literature review of these and other Indian breeds in India, Brazil, Mexico and the U. S., would indicate production characteristics similar to the American Brahman and other Bos indicus breeds with lower birth weights in purebreds than Bos taurus breeds. Crosses of Bos indicus bulls with Bos taurus cows result in higher birth weights than the reciprocal cross. Preweaning growth of Guzerat purebreds is among the highest of the Bos indicus breeds but lower than improved Bos taurus breeds. Similar results are reported for weaning weight, post-weaning gain, yearling weight, and feedyard gain and efficiency. Carcass traits of purebreds tend to be lower quality and yield grading when compared to Bos taurus breeds but similar for all Bos indicus breeds except Nelore. Like all Bos indicus breeds the Guzerat adds environmental adaptability to tropical and subtropical conditions, insect tolerance and some disease resistance, longevity, and maternal ability, especially in crosses with Bos taurus breeds. The cattle are gentle without a disposition problem and are fertile under adverse conditions. [Oklahoma State University]


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