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Breeds of Cows Directory: "L": Latvian Brown - Luing

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia

 

Latvian Blue see Latvijas zilâ
 
Latvian Brown Also Known By: Latvijas brûnâ
The breed began to be formed in the middle of the last century when Angeln cattle were imported into Latvia to improve the local, low-productive cattle. The crosses had a higher milk yield but lower fat content. At the end of the last and early in this century Danish Red bulls were imported and used on the Angeln crosses and on the local cattle. The long-term breeding of the crosses inter se with systematic selection for milk yield and fat content ensured the development of highly productive cattle.

Since 1885 the best animals were registered and the first herdbook was published in 1911. In 1947 the breed was given a new name - Red-Brown Latvian. By 1980 numbers had reached 1 417 000 head. These cattle vary in color from light-red to dark-red. The head, neck and legs are often darker. They have a strong constitution. The head is small, light and moderately long. The skeleton is light, chest deep, body long, rump slightly raised, udder usually well developed.

The best herds have marked dairy features. The basic measurements of mature cows (in cm) are: withers height 129.6, chest depth 71.1, chest girth 193.3, oblique body length 163.7, cannon bone girth 18.0 (National Herdbook , vol. 29, 1983). The live weight of mature pedigree cows is 520-560 kg and that of bulls is 750-850 kg, going up to 1000 kg.

The milk yield of purebred Latvian Brown cows is high. The average milk yield of the mature cows recorded in Volume 29 of the Herdbook (1983) in their best lactation was 4537 kg and the fat content 4.28%. The average yields of the nearest female ancestors of the bulls recorded in Volume 29 of the National Herdbook were 5970-6036 kg of milk and the fat content was in the range 4.38-4.73%. The champion milk producers are: Nadze 8977 - 8457 kg milk with 3.93% fat; Yetse 6320 - 8170 kg, 4.21%; Grieta 4915 - 8113 kg, 4.26%; Roya 5212 - 8021 kg, 4.10%.

As a genetic resource for Latvia, Latvian Brown cattle are of primary importance: they account for 99% of all cattle in this country. The breed includes 4 major lines. in the improvement of Latvian Brown cattle much importance has been attached to line breeding. In 1979 a new breeding line was tested and approved; it was named BL-1 (Brown Latvian No. 1). The number of the BL-1 line is over 50,000 head. This line is being developed in four branches by the assortative mating of sires to cows from the best families and by periodical moderate inbreeding. The major selection herds belong to the breeding centers Vetsautse, Sigulda and Sarkanais Octobris. The BL-1 cows are noted for their harmonious conformation. The udder is large, glandular, usually cup-shaped or spherical with equally developed quarters (average index is 45%). The milk yield of the cows in the selection group is 5287 kg; fat content averages 4.16%, and protein content 3.45%. There are many champions in this line; they combine high yield with increased fat content: Undra 6088 - 4th lactation, 9298 kg milk, 4.75% fat, 3.84% protein: Baka 3469 - 4th, 8544, 4.82%, 4.05%; Dalasa 4044 - 8th, 10 106, 3.76%. The Latvian Brown breed of cattle is being improved with the aim of increasing milk yields to 5000 kg with the same fat and protein content and to meet the requirements of the industrial methods of cattle management. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Latvijas zilâ (translated Latvian Blue)
This breed otiginated from local cows on the coast of the Baltic sea.
Location within country. northern and north-western part of Latvia The breed is well adapted to maritime and harsh climate and can graze on poor pasture.

Breed colours
Main colours, uni coloured: light and dark grey
Colour Comment: The breed is of Latvian Blue type. [Source: Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations]

 
Limousin
The history of Limousin cattle may very well be as old as the European continent itself. Cattle found in cave drawings estimated to be 20,000 years old in the Lascaux Cave near Montignac, France, have a striking resemblance to today's Limousin.

These golden-red cattle are native to the south central part of France in the regions of Limousin and Marche. The terrain of the homeland has been described as rugged and rolling with rocky soil and a harsh climate. Consequently, the growing of field crops was very difficult at best and emphasis was placed on animal agriculture. Limousin cattle, as a result of their environment, evolved into a breed of unusual sturdiness, health and adaptability. This lack of natural resources also enabled the region to remain relatively isolated and the farmers free to develop their cattle with little outside genetic interference.

During these early times of animal power, Limousin gained a well-earned reputation as work animals in addition to their beef qualities. Rene Lafarge reported in 1698, "Limousin oxen were universally renown and esteemed both as beasts of burden and beef cattle." At the end of their work life, these animals were then fattened for slaughter.

Traditionally, French cattle were kept in a confinement or semi-confinement situation. However, Limousin cattle spent the majority of their time outdoors in the harsh climate of the region. This was a source of great pride to the breeders. The cows calved year round, outdoors, to bring in a regular source of income and the heifers were bred to calve at three years of age. In the winter, the entire herd was outside and whatever the season, the cattle were handled on a daily basis.
French Developments

Once in the 1700s and again in the mid-1800s, an attempt was made by a small number of French Limousin breeders to crossbreed their cattle in hopes of gaining both size and scale. In 1840, several breeders crossbred their Limousin with oxen of Agenaise variety.
The resulting animals were taller, having more volume of muscling in their hindquarter. Unfortunately, these crossbred cattle proved not to be economical as they needed a larger amount of feed than could be provided in the majority of the region. Only near Limoges, where manure and fertilizers were plentiful and growing field crops was widespread, did these cattle prosper.

Limousin breeders admitted their mistake and then concentrated upon improving the breed through natural selection. A leader in the natural selection movement was Charles de Leobary and his herdsman, Royer. Through a very tough, selective process, these two developed an outstanding herd of "purebred" Limousin. From 1854 to 1896 the de Leobary herd won a total of 265 ribbons at the prestigious Bordeaux Competition, one of France's finest cattle shows.

Limousin cattle made a deep impression in French cattle shows during the 1850s. The first show wins were at the Bordeaux Fair where Limousin tooksecond and third places. The cattle belonged to the already mentioned de Leobary herd. Furthermore, in 1857, '58 and '59, Limousin animals topped other breeds in some of the first carcass competitions at the farm produce competition held at Poissy, near Paris. The reputation of Limousin as meat animals was firmly established. Today, Limousin cattle are still referred to as the "butcher's animal" in France.

The widespread use of natural selection made it important to record the bloodlines of the outstanding Limousin bulls and females. So, in November of 1886, the first Limousin Herd Book was established. Louis Michel presided over the herd book, the objective of which was to ensure the uniformity of the breed. Michel and his 11 fellow herd book commissioners were extremely rigid in the selections. Between 1887 and 1890, the commission met six times and out of 1,800 animals presented for registration from 150 different farms, only a total of 674 (117 males and 497 females) were accepted for registration.

The formation of the herd book had other important consequences. Once established, the French government then established shows solely for Limousin cattle. As with their counterparts today, these shows provided tremendous exposure for the breed as the many valuable traits of these beef cattle were presented for all to see.

By July of 1914, the total number of animals registered in the herd book was 5,416. It is interesting to note the herd book has been reorganized twice since it was founded, once in 1923 and again in 1937. Both times these reorganizations were used to redefine the characteristics of the breed, making the breeders more selective, this improving the quality of the animals.

Through the late 1800s and early 1900s, Limousin breeders paid close attention to morphological characteristics as the breed developed. The medium size of these cattle as compared to other European breeds was, and is still, an outstanding breed trait. They also selected for the dark golden-red hide with wheat colored underpinnings. French records also show a great deal of emphasis was stressed upon deep chest, a strong top-line, well-placed tailhead and strongly-muscled hindquarter. The end result was an efficient, hardy, adaptable animal that was extremely well-suited for its only intended purpose - to produce meat.
Across the Atlantic

As the breed developed in France, cattlemen in North America were looking to Europe to improve their native beef cattle here in the United States. In the late 1800s, English breeds such as the Hereford, Shorthorn and Angus were imported and crossed on native cattle, most of them of Spanish background. In the early 1900s Charolais were imported into Cuba and Mexico and were first introduced into the United States in the early 1930s.

The acceptance of Charolais, combined with the use of crossbreeding as a tool to increase beef production, lead to the investigation of many other Europeanbreeds, including Limousin, by North American cattlemen. One of the first exposures in this country concerning Limousin cattle was in the early 1960s in an issue of the Western Livestock Journal when a Canadian wrote of his impressions after returning from a trip to France. As more cattlemen traveled toEurope, they came back talking about an impressive "new" beef breed they had seen...Limousin.

Cattle from France were not eligible for importation into the United States, as France was a hoof-and-mouth disease affected area. However, the Canadian government did agree to accept French cattle after they had successfully completed a strict three-step quarantine program. Before the cattle left France they were held in a three-month quarantine, then once arriving in Canada they were kept on Grosse Isle of the cost of Nova Scotia or St. Pierre Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence for another three-month period. Finally, the cattle were required to successfully pass a 30-day "on the farm" quarantine. Once they passed the quarantine, semen could be shipped throughout North America.

The first Limousin imported to Canada was Prince Pompadour, a son of Baron bred at the highly-respected Pompadour Estate of France. Through the efforts of Adrien de Moustier of France (later to found Bov Import, Inc.) and others, the bull arrived in November of 1968. An impressive bull, Prince Pompadour had been selected by noted French breeder Emil Chastanet as a herd bull for his operation. After his arrival, Prince Pompadour was brought to the United States to be part of Limousin exhibitions at various cattle shows and did much to draw attention to the breed.

The first Limousin bulls imported permanently into the United States did not arrive until the fall of 1971. Until this time, the Canadian government had not permitted any Limousin bulls to leave the country except for short periods for exhibition purposes, and then only if the owners posted a large bond that was refunded when the animal returned to Canada. The first U.S. import, Kansas Colonel, was born and raised in Canada and was imported by Bob Haag of Topeka, Kansas, for a group of Kansas Limousin breeders.

The first Limousin semen was available from Prince Pompadour in July of 1969. After being evaluation by J.J. "Bud" Prosser at the International Beef Breeders facility near Denver, semen was picked up by Colonel E.J. Geeson of Agate, Colorado. A retired Air Force officer, Geeson used the semen on his Angus cows on his ranch east of Denver.

After the importation of Prince Pompadour to Canada, another group of Limousin bulls followed in 1969. This shipment contained Decor, Diplomate, Dandy, Prairie Danseur and Prairie Pride. These bulls were the base upon which the breed began its long climb up, finding good acceptance on the part of cattlemen.
Forming the Foundation

As the first Limousin cattle arrived in North America, cattlemen interested in the breed realized the need for an organization to promote and develop the breed in the United States and Canada. At one of these meetings in the spring of 1968 at the Albany Hotel in Denver, fifteen cattlemen formed the North American Limousin Foundation (NALF).

First president of NALF was Bob Purdy of Buffalo, Wyoming. A well-respected cattleman, Purdy was a strong advocate of performance testing. Through his experience with Charolais, Purdy knew many of the pitfalls to be avoided in the early days. Purdy was a capable administrator who gave solid leadership to the Foundation during its infancy in the three years he served as president.

The man responsible for the actual day-to-day running of NALF was the first executive vice president, Dick Goff of Denver. A journalist by profession, Goff's advertising agency had worked for the Charolais association, and had seen first-hand the development of a new breed association. He knew the first three to five years of a breed association's existence were extremely critical and financial stability was the key to survival.

As a result, Goff was largely responsible for the firm financial base upon which NALF was built. He developed the idea to sell 100 founder memberships in the NALF for $2,500 apiece. Each founder member was entitled to a prorated share of Prince Pompadour semen, all of which was owned by NALF. All but one of the memberships was sold and the combination of excellent cattle, leadership and financial stability gave the Limousin breed a tremendous start in North America.

From the initial concentrations in Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota and western Canada, the Limousin breed has expanded across North America. The tremendous carcass traits of the breed have attracted the full attention of the entire beef industry. In addition to solid prices for breeding stock, feeders are paying a premium for percentage Limousin because of their excellent feed efficiency and packers are asking for Limousin by name.

Percentage Limousin steers have had unparalleled success in the show ring. Limousin steers have one such prestigious shows as Denver, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Ak-Sar-Ben, not to mention number state and county fairs. Besides these on-foot champions, Limousin steers have won many carcass shows, living up to their reputation as the "Carcass Breed."
NALF has grown from the original 99 founder members to nearly 12,000 active lifetime members who have registered over 1 million head of Limousin cattle.
Limousin Fits the Bill

In 2002, NALF realized the need to provide cattlemen with the option of flexibility in their crossbreeding programs. Recognizing the breed complimentarity of Limousin and Angus, NALF introduced Lim-Flex, a pedigreed Limousin-Angus hybrid. Producers now have genetic options to fit every scenario, from fullblood or purebred Limousin for a "full-shot" of muscle and efficiency, to Lim-Flex hybrids for a "blended-shot" of Limousin with added marbling and maternal from Angus (black or red). With Lim-Flex, breeders can offer a "just-right" shot of Limousin to meet the needs of most any crossbreeding program.

Lim-Flex stands for Limousin with muscle and efficiency, along with flexibility - the most significant strength of this powerful genetic blend:

Flexible seedstock for simple, easily managed crossbreeding
Flexible market progeny that consistently hit dressing percent, along with yield and quality grade targets for mainstream, case-ready markets
Flexible females adapted for efficiency across a wide range of environments

NALF's UltraMate Xbreeding System outlines how to use registered Limousin and Lim-Flex seedstock on different types of commercial cows to hit end-product and maternal targets. This breeder's guide to Lim-Flex focuses on how to record necessary pedigree and breed composition data required for registry, as well as other policies for Lim-Flex animals.

From humble beginnings in France many centuries ago, these golden-red beef cattle have now achieved acceptance here in the United States as a major contributor to a more efficient beef industry.

Limousin is the most progressive continental breed registry in the United States. Limousin is the leader in Muscle Growth Efficiency and is the ideal complement to British-based cows.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Limpburger
This landrace originated in the region of Limpurg / Hohenlohe north-east of Stuttgart in southern Germany. In the 18th and 19th century cattles from this region were driven some hundred kilometers to Paris, where they were called ”Boeuf de Hohenlohe”. In the end of the 19th century the small, yellow landrace has been crossed with Gelbvieh and Glan to become bigger. Also in the 19.century King Wilhelm I of Württemberg blended Limpurger and a dutch milkrace and created the now extinct "Rosensteinrind".

As early as 1890 ”Verein zur Erhaltung und Pflege des Limpurger Rindes” (Association for Preservation and Care) was founded. Before World War II the population was around 13,000 head of cattle, by 1952 the number was reduced to 5,000. Nowadays exist about 300 cows and 10 bulls of this rare breed.

Characteristics: Limpurger were selected for meat, milk and work, are middle-sized and yellow in color.

cow: Height: 134-137 cm Weight: 600-650 kg
bull: Height: 143-148 cm Weight: 1000-1100 kg
milk production: 4400 kg

More information: GEH (society for the protection of old domestic animal breeds), www.g-e-h.de[Oklahoma State University]

 
Lincoln Red
Lincoln Red cattle have been imported into Australia from the United Kingdom since the early 1900s. The Australian Society was formed in 1971 at which time there were a limited number of purebred Lincoln Red cattle of both sexes in Australia. This nucleus has been expanded by natural mating, artificial insemination using overseas sires and the introduction of a grading-up program.

Lincoln Reds are an efficient, early maturing breed. They offer minimum care, are easy calvers and are not prone to sunburn or eye cancer.

The breed is a deep red color, may be horned or polled and is reasonably large-framed with a rapid growth rate.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Lithuanian Red
This breed was formed early in this century by improved feeding and management of the local Lithuanian cattle, assortative mating and mass selection and crossing with the improved breeds: Ayrshire, Angeln, Dutch, Danish Red, Swiss Brown and Shorthorn. The crosses were selected for milk production. Most animals are of clearly defined dairy type.

Basic measurements of the pedigree cows (in cm) are as follows: withers height 126, oblique body length 157, chest width 43, chest depth 69, chest girth 188, cannon bone girth 19. Coat color is red. The average live weight of cows is 470 kg; those in the herdbook weigh 520 kg and bulls 750 kg. The young stock of the Lithuanian Red breed are noted for their rapid growth rate, good food conversion and high carcass quality. When intensively fattened, steers weigh 413 kg as yearlings and 503 kg Rlaen 15 months old. Up to the age of 15 months one kg of gain requires 5.32 feed units.

The dressing percentage is 58.6 and proportion of meat 81.6%. The average daily gain of steers from 6 to 15 months of age is 1032 g. The milk yield of 83 500 mature cows was 3362 kg with 3.69% fat; 2700 cows at pedigree farms produced 4337 kg with 3.87% fat. The record holders of the Red Lithuanian breed are as follows: Sloga 35 - 7th lactation, 10 754 kg milk, 4.20% fat; Zhabine 1355 - 4th, 10,242 kg, 4.33%; Gerve 1246 - 6th, 10,196 kg, 4.09%. The breed consists of 18 lines and related groups.

The best bulls are kept at Pasval, Shaulyai and Vilnius breeding centers. The average milk yield of the nearest female ancestors of these bulls ranges from 6346 to 7210 kg and the fat content is 4.39-4.72%. The Lithuanian Red breed is found in 18 districts in the north and northeast of the Lithuanian SSR. In 1980 the total population was 567 000. Up to 10 000 head of young pedigree stock are exported annually to the Kazakh, Uzbek and other Soviet republics. The program for the improvement of Lithuanian Red cattle, along with pure breeding, envisages the use of Danish Red and Angeln bulls to form high butterfat lines. Blood group analysis has shown that the tiomozygosity rate is fairly low (6.8%). It points to a high heterogeneity of Lithuanian Red cattle and to a great potential for improvement by accumulating the useful genes.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Lohani
The Lohani is a draft type that is found in the Loralai district in Pakistan's Baluchistan Province and Dera Ismail Khan in NWF Province. They have a red coat splashed with white spots. Their average weight at maturity is 300 kg for the males and 235 kg for the females.

They have a short-stature and a small size. Short thick horns, small ears, short neck, well developed hump, moderate dewlap, black switch of tail, small tucked up udder in cows, and it is a hardy and sure-footed animal. Male stock are suitable for light work in hilly and sub-hilly areas.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Loudais, Also Known By: Lourdaise (French)
100 to 150 years ago, it was virtually unknown for breeds to be selected specifically for milk or meat. Instead, you could find a multitude of regional types which were used for their milk, meat, manure and, above all, to work.

According to Laurent Avon of the 'Institut de l'Elevage ' (Institute of Animal-Rearing), the Lourdais cow was certainly the best all-rounder of all the Pyrenean breeds, with good physical proportions and good milk production of 20 liters a day after giving birth, without the use of special food rations.

In the 1980s, only 30 cows and a single bull existed. Currently, there are about 100 nationally, of which 22 live at the 'Ferme Conservatoire', acting as a kind of 'nursery' herd. The farm has made an effort to conserve those which are the best milking cows, while taking into account some of their 'natural' behaviour. For example, most of the time, the calf stays beside its mother for her to be milked.

The Lourdais is a white to light creamy-wheat in coloration. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Luing
Developed on the island of Luing (pronounced "Ling") off the west coast of Scotland, the cattle are derived from crossing the Beef Shorthorn with the Highland breed.[Oklahoma State University]

 

 



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