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Breeds of Cows Directory: "P": Parthenais - Pinzgauer

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia


Parthenais existed in western Europe for hundreds of years with the official French herdbook being established in 1893. 100 years later the Canadian herdbook was established.
Docile, reddish buckskin cattle with black pigmentation. Calving ease consistent with traditional North American values.
Market Appeal

* Statistics show Parthenais to be highly productive, fertile producers.
* High cutability.
* Expected to prove out lower in calories, fat and cholesterol while retaining excellent flavour and tenderness

[Oklahoma State University]
Philippine Native, Varieties: Batanes Black, Batangas, Ilocos, Iloilo
Originating from Chinese and Mexican cattle the Philippine Native is used primarily for milk and as a draft animal. The males of this breed will exhibit a small hump. The mature body weight in the females is 280 - 300 kg.[Oklahoma State University]
Plevne, Pleven, Plevna see Turkish Grey Steppe
Polish Red
In the 1880's, red cattle from Denmark, Germany and Sweden were used to improve the various local strains of red Polish cattle. This mixture resulted in the formations of the Polish Red breed, for which a herdbook was established in 1895. Polish Red cattle are extremely robust dairy animals. They are however, rather late maturing; first calves are dropped at 3 years or later. Cows average 400-500 kg, bulls weigh from 500-550 kg.

It is a meat dairy type and is used for draft purposes. Purebreds are rare.

[Oklahoma State University]
Polled Hereford
Society: American Hereford Association
Polled Herefords represent the development of an idea - an idea spawned in the minds of a small number of Midwestern Hereford breeders in the late 1890s who realized that it was both possible and practical to develop "modern Herefords minus horns."

These breeders were motivated by the promising prospect of developing Herefords with outstanding beef-producing characteristics, but with the added desirable trait of being naturally hornless. They planted the seed from which grew a new giant in the American and world beef cattle industry

The Polled Hereford of today is the result - a modern, practical breed of cattle that has experienced widespread acceptance and desirability.

Polled Herefords were developed from the horned Hereford breed which was founded in the mid-18th century by the farmers of Hereford County, England. Among the horned Herefords an occasional calf would be born which did not develop horns. This change from parents' characteristics is known as a "mutation." These cattle soon came to be called "polled," which means naturally hornless.

Warren Gammon, a young Iowa Hereford breeder from Des Moines, originated Polled Herefords. He seized upon the idea of producing the hornless cattle after seeing some on exhibition at the Trans-Mississippi World Fair in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1898.

Three years later, Gammon established the Polled Hereford breed registry with 11 head of naturally hornless whiteface cattle he had located and purchased. These Herefords were registered in the American Hereford Association, but were not identified as to their polled characteristic. Therefore, Gammon formed the American Polled Hereford Cattle Club to maintain a separate record of purebred Polled Hereford registrations.

Thus, in 1901, the Polled Hereford breed came into being with 11 registrations on record. In 1907, the pioneer breeders of Polled Herefords incorporated their organization, with headquarters in the Gammon home in Des Moines. Gammon served as executive secretary until 1921.

Today the Polled Hereford registry is combined with the American Hereford Association. [Oklahoma State University]

The Ponwar is small and compact with frequent white markings on the forehead, dewlap and limbs. Black and white color is often seen in the hill type of cattle and these features are also common in the Ponwar breed. However, the horns are inclined to be lyre-shaped, which may be due to some mixture of the nearby plains cattle. The breed is restricted to a small geographical area of Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
The animals of this breed possess a small, narrow face, small ears and big, bright eyes. The forehead is slightly concave and often has white marking. The horns are long, upstanding and lyre-shaped. They measure from 12 to 14 inches in length.

The neck is short and powerful. The barrel is moderately long. The sheath is short and tight. The dewlap is light and thin. The hump is well-developed in bulls but is small in cows. The cows have small and poorly developed udders. The tail is long and tapering with a white switch.

Ponwar cattle are usually black and white; the color markings do not have any particular pattern, but large patches of black and white are intermixed.

The cattle of this breed are active and often fiery-tempered. They are observed to thrive well under free grazing conditions. The bullocks are good for draft purposes. They are quick movers. The animals of this breed are observed to mature late. The cows are poor milkers and are rarely milked even in the flush of their production.

[Oklahoma State University]
Society: Piedmontese Association of the United States

The Piemonte region of Northwest Italy (razza Piemontese) is a secluded pocket, naturally protected by the Alps mountains. Aurochs, (bos Taurus) ancient European cattle, populated this region. Some 25,000 years ago, a type of cattle known as Zebu (bos Indicus) began a massive migration from Pakistan. The vanguard of this migration entered the Piedmont valleys and were blocked from further movement by the Alps. These cattle stayed and intermingled with the local "native" cattle - the Auroch. These two distinct breeds - the Auroch and the Zebu - fused and evolved through natural sel;ection over the next 25,000 years to become the Piedmontese breed.

All Italian white breeds, Piedmontese included, are born 'fawn' or tan and change to the grey-white color, with black skin pigmentation. The Piedmontese, however, also carry genetic traits absolutely unique to them. In 1886, the appearance of double-muscling (DM) in Piedmontese cattle attracted the attention of breeders, who had the foresight to recognize the enormous potential of this development. The first Herdbook was opened in 1887, and improvement campaign and standard of merit have led to many years of genetic selection to eliminate detrimental aspects generally associated with DM.

In Italy, the Piedmontese have been (and many still are today) utilized as a dual-purpose animal...having very rich milk used for specialty cheese production and beef marketed as a premium product. The first Piedmontese in North America arrived in the fall of 1979 through an importation made from Italy by the PBL Co-operative of Saskatchewan, Canada. Additional importation throught he 1980s added to the Piedmontese lines in North America. By the 1990's, import of genetic material (semen and embryos) had dramatically improved - and there is now a wealth of bloodlines to select from. [Oklahoma State University]

Pinzgauer, Also Known By: Pinzgau, Jocherg Hummel
The Practical Breed

About 500 AD., Alpine herdsmen, who ran their cattle on small, widely scattered, rocky pastures, had begun to develop a breed of red and white cattle from the native red Bavarian cattle. These early cattlemen selected animals that could withstand the harsh conditions and still produce meat and milk. Farmers in the highly productive valleys and other lush areas of Bavaria, developed larger, brown and spotted (flecked) breeds of cattle from the same original, native seedstock. Later in history, Pinzgauer attained their present form and color. The designation "Pinzgauer" drives from the "Pinzgau" district in the province of Salzburg, Austria, and appears for the first time in documents of the 1600's. Herd books dated in the 1700's show that selective breeding had been going on for some time, and there are records of exportations of "Pinzgauer Cattle" to Rumania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia in the 1820's. In 1871 Pinzgauer cattle were sent to the Paris World Exhibition. In the early 1900's, a number of breeding cattle were exported to South Africa, which has the second largest herd of fullblood animals in the world today.

Milk Yield

The milk productivity of Pinzguaer cows is on average 4,000/5,000 kg of milk. The good capacity for eating large amounts of food, good temperament, maternal instinct and remarkable fertility are important elements for justifying using the Pinzguaer breed also for breeding nursing cows.

Beef production

With an intensive fattening the average daily weight increase is about 1,400 g with a slaughter yield of 56-58%. The good meat quality, with first rate marbling, fine fiber and light red color satisfy consumer requirements.

Beef Program

The first attempts at Pinzguaer selection date back to the 18th century. In 1989 the inbreeding programs "Pinzguaer 2000" and "Moet programs" were integrated to develop the double aptitude of the breed, without forsaking such aspects such as resistance and energy.

Horned or Polled, Pinzgauers have pigmented skin under a chestnut red coat and white markings on the back, tail and barrel. They adapt readily and easily to a variety of climates. Eye problems are rare. Smooth hair and firm, flexible skin prevents tick and other insect infestations.

Mature bulls average 2000 pounds and up, while mature females level out at approximately 1,000 to 1,600 pounds. More moderately sized in relation to the "big is better" theory, Pinzgauer progeny still have above average weaning weights, gainability and feed conversion, but they maintain the easy calving ability that cattlemen prefer. Udders are well-formed and hold up well during lactation.

North American Entry
The first four head of Pinzgauer were imported into Canada in September 1972. Austrian Fullbloods were first imported to the USA in 1976. Live animals, frozen embryos, and semen all have been imported to establish fullblood herds and to upgrade the Purebred Pinzgauers. Pinzgauer as we know them today are the result of rigid performance and registry demands. The American Pinzgauer Association has a breeding-up program which allows a producer to breed up to Purebred Pinzgauer (7/8 for females, 15/16 for bulls) by starting with commercial cows and using Pinzgauer bulls. At the end of 1989, there were over 30,000 Fullblood and Purebred Pinzgauers in the United States, giving the cattlemen a world wide genetic base on which to build a Pinzgauer herd.


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