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Breeds of Cows Directory: "R": Rätien Gray - RX3

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia


Rätien Gray, Also Known By: Rätische Grauvieh
The Rätien Gray, as a small, undemanding and robust tri-purpose breed (milk, meat, labor), was spread over vast areas of the Eastern Alps. Rätien is the ancient Roman province which today includes the areas Graubünden, Tirol and South Bavaria.

Because of the many types of breeding regions and the isolation of the valleys, local varieties have developed. For this reason one distinguished above all in the historical “Rätien Gray Breeding Country” of Switzerland between the smaller, lighter Albula Rätien Gray and the larger, heavier Upland variety. The individual animals varied markedly in form and color. Color descriptions extended from iron gray, silver gray, dark gray all the way to gray-yellow with a pronounced fox-like mop of hair.

At the end of the 19th century the canton Graubünden was yet a breeding region for the Rätien Gray. Thanks to its reputation as a work and slaughter animal, the market area was large.

Despite these advantages this breed was pressed out beyond the borders of the country by the “modern,” characteristically milk producing Braunvieh at the beginning of the 20th century. In North and South Tirol, in valleys with steep and sparse ground, the Rätien Gray has been maintained as pure stock up to the present. Through the initiative of the foundation Pro Specie Rara, the small Rätien Gray from North Tirol stock, similar to the Albula variety, was able again to gain a foothold as one of the Swiss cattle breeds belonging to the cultural landscape.

Characteristics of the animal: The current Rätien Gray is an adaptable, long-lived, productive dual-purpose cow, with an optimal conversion of roughage into milk and meat.

With its yet existent original characteristics - small, light, undemanding, robust and adaptable - it is especially suited for use on extreme and remote meadows and pastures, above all in moutainous regions.

Breeding Organization: In 1992 the independent Society of the Rätien Gray Breeders was founded, which is supported by the foundation Pro Specie Rara. [Oklahoma State University]

Rath cattle belong to the white, narrow-faced, stumpy horned group of cattle represented by the Hariana cattle. As a distinct type, they are bred in a very small area in Alwar of Rajasthan State. Particularly the area between Bansur and Narnaul and between Mundawar and Narnaul is noted for pure specimens of the breed. They are also bred in adjacent areas but, owing to the proximity of other similar breeds such as Hariana, Mewati and Nagore, they are likely to be mixed with these in strain. Rath cattle are reputed to be economical to maintain. As medium-sized draft cattle, they are considered very suitable for work in the plow or on the road. The cows are fairly good milkers.
Rath cattle are medium-sized but powerful, with white or gray coloring. In the bull, the coloring of the neck and shoulder is generally darker than the rest of the body. The face is straight, narrow and medium-sized. The forehead is flat and does not show any protuberance in full-grown animals. Young animals under 3 years occasionally show this protuberance but it straightens up as the animal reaches maturity. The nasal bones are somewhat wide and coarse. The muzzle is wide and black. The eyes are wide open and clearly defined by the dark eyelids. Horns are small and emerge laterally in a somewhat forward direction from a moderately broad poll and curve inwards at the tips. The ears are short and pendulous, the inner surface facing forwards.

The neck is fairly long. The hump is moderately developed, placed well in front of the withers. The dewlap is light and the sheath is very small. The body is of moderate length with deep chest and well-sprung ribs. Quarters are well-developed and also the legs. The tail is short with black switch and set rather high giving the quarters a somewhat drooping effect. The feet are small and compact.

As the area in which Rath cattle are bred is dry and with very limited grazing, the number of animals in the area is restricted, but at the same time, this has kept the breed pure as no outside animals come into the region for grazing purposes. It is observed that they are economical to maintain and are regarded as a poor man's breed. The bullocks are very good workers in this area being of heavy sand, powerful and active bullocks are essential and Rath beasts are well suited for this work. They are observed to work steadily for 10 hours a day in fields and can travel about 20 miles a day carrying a load of half a ton in heavy sand. They are created with long life.

[Oklahoma State University]
The Rathi is a Bos indicus breed used for draft and dairy purposes. It originated in Bikaner and Ganganagar in northwest Rajasthan, India. The breed is usually dark red or tan but occasionally spotted individuals can be found. The Rathi originated from the Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. They should not be confused with the Rath breed which is a separate breed kept by the nomadic Rath cattle breeders. [Oklahoma State University]
Raukolle, Raukolle see Red Polled Østland
Red Angus
Seven innovative breeders chose to use Red Angus in 1954 to establish the industry’s first performance registry. Throughout its history, the Red Angus Association of America has gone on to make all the tough choices, and all the right choices. In recent years, the Red Angus breed has attained a high level of popularity from commercial cattlemen, and for all the right reasons.

The Origin of "Angus"

Like most modern American beef breeds, the Red Angus breed had its beginning in Europe. In the eighth-century, according to some authorities, hardy Norsemen raiding the coasts of England and Scotland brought with them a small, dun-colored hornless cattle which interbred with black native Celtic cattle of inland Scotland, which had upright horns. A naturally polled black breed was produced, which roughly corresponded to the black Aberdeen Angus of today, although it was a considerably smaller-bodied animal. The polled characteristic was very slow to spread inland, and for almost a thousand years was confined principally to the coastal areas of England and Scotland.

Eric L.C. Pentecost, the noted English breeder of Red Angus cattle, offers a specific and logical explanation for the introduction of the red coloration into the Aberdeen Angus breed. In the eighteenth century, the black Scottish cattle were too light to provide sufficiently large draught oxen, so larger English longhorns, predominantly red in color, were brought in and crossed with the black native polled breed. The resultant offspring were all black polled animals, since black is a dominant color, and red a recessive one. However, all carried the red gene. Subsequent interbreeding produced an average of one red calf in four, in accordance with Mendel’s law of heredity.

Angus -Red or Black
Early in the development of the Aberdeen Angus, Hugh Watson of Keillor, Scotland arbitrarily decided that black was the proper color for the breed, and thereby started a fashion. He might well have chosen red instead. Leon J. Cole and Sara V. H. Jones of the University of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station published a pamphlet in 1920 on "The Occurrence of Red Calves in Black Breeds of Cattle" which contained this pertinent paragraph:

"One more point should be emphasized, namely that the red individuals appearing in such stock (Aberdeen Angus)...are just as truly 'purebred' as their black relatives, and there is no reason why, in all respects save color, they should not be fully as valuable. The fact that they are discarded while the blacks are retained is simply due to the turn of fortune that black rather than red became established fashion for the Aberdeen Angus breed. Had red been the chosen color, there would never have been any trouble with the appearance of blacks as off-color individuals, since red-to-red breeds true."

The preceding paragraph, written more than three decades prior to the establishment of the Red Angus Association of America, shows a true appreciation of the basic strengths of the reds. This is emphasized by the current revival and popularity of the red strain of Aberdeen Angus throughout the world.

Early Angus Herdbooks

The first Aberdeen Angus herdbook, published in 1862 in Scotland, entered both reds and blacks without distinction. This practice is continued in Britain today, as is the case throughout most of the world. Aberdeen Angus was introduced into America in the 1870s and soon attained high popularity. The first American herd books, published in 1886 and 1888 respectively, made no record as to the color of individual animals. In 1890, twenty-two reds were registered in the American Aberdeen Angus Herdbook of some 2,700 individuals entered that year. Finally, the reds and other colors were barred from registration altogether after 1917. This severe discrimination against the red color in an effort to assure a pure black strain brought a marked decline in the number of red calves born in American herds.

Rebirth of "Red" Angus
Various cattlemen throughout the United States understood the outstanding values of the reds. In 1945, the first of these cattlemen started selecting and breeding reds cropped from the best black Aberdeen Angus herds in America. By 1954, a sufficient number of herds had been established to form a breeder’s organization known as the "Red Angus Association of America."
With a temporary headquarters in Sheridan, Wyoming, seven innovative cattle breeders created the Red Angus Association as the first performance breed registry in the United States. In August of 1954, the Association’s first president, Waldo Forbes, Sr., summed-up this vision of the founding members:

"The policy of the (Red Angus) Association is to discourage the more artificial practices in purebred cattle production... and to place its faith instead in objective tests, consisting for the most part of comparisons within herds of factors of known economic importance and known heritability... By making this an integral part of the registration system, Red Angus breeders feel that even faster progress can be made toward the ultimate goal of more efficient beef production."

From the beginning, performance data was required for registration for all cattle. The ultimate goal was to initiate a system to objectively evaluate and select cattle based on traits of economic importance.

The Red Angus Association of America

The RAAA has long been noted for its farsighted vision of beef production. Over a variety of fronts Red Angus has either led the industry, or been an early adopter of new technologies. This maverick attitude allowed the RAAA to adopt philosophies and technologies that were deemed too risky or unconventional by other associations. Here is a sample of some visionary policies enacted by the RAAA:

A Leader in the Performance Movement
In 1954, when the Association took this bold move to build a "performance registry", the scientific community had not even settled on using 205 days to serve as the age which weaning weights would be adjusted to. Although collecting and turning in weaning weights has become second nature for Red Angus breeders, very few associations require performance data as a criteria for registration even today when the value and necessity of the performance data has been so clearly demonstrated.

A Leader in Open A.I.
Artificial Insemination has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in the beef industry’s genetic progress. However, as this technology became available, most breed associations enforced strict regulations making the technology impractical for many breeders until the 1970’s. However, the RAAA in 1954 set its own course in which A.I. was open and unrestricted within the Red Angus breed.

A Leader in Performance Data in the Showring
In the decade of the nineties, several breeds have started the use of objective data in the showring as an additional tool for the judge, besides the traditional visual appraisal of animals. Red Angus was the first to incorporate performance data in the showring, holding the first "performance" show in 1956. Although Red Angus is not known as a "show" breed, the Association does sponsor a National Show each year. How is it run? You guessed it, the same as in 1956, with the judge being provided all pertinent objective information such as EPDs.

A Leader in the Promotion of Crossbreeding
As early as 1961, the RAAA developed a pamphlet promoting crossbreeding. This was approximately ten years prior to the industry even starting to accept crossbreeding as a tool for commercial cow/calf production. In 1970, Red Angus continued its industry leadership by starting and promoting an F-1 program. 1999 marked another first as the RAAA successfully spearheaded a joint-breed promotion extolling the advantages of heterosis.

A Leader in Offering an Open Registry
In 1980, the RAAA broke ranks from the other British breeds by instituting a category registration system. This far sighted program still kept the 100%, Category 1-A cattle separated, but it additionally allowed breeders to develop purebred, Category 1-B cattle through a process of breeding-up. Furthermore, by instituting a Category II and III, the Association is able to maintain a performance registry for foundation animals and composites.

A Leader in Focusing on Commercial Customers
Red Angus has always prided itself as the first breed that focused its primary attention on customers — the commercial cow/calf producers of the United States. In keeping with this focus, the American Red Angus Magazine is sent to all Red Angus bull customers. The Association also started a Commercial Marketing Program in 1994. Believed to be the second such program in the industry, it offers a wide range of services designed to enhance the profitability of producers utilizing Red Angus genetics in their commercial operations.

A Leader in Total Herd Reporting
In the tradition of being the true "performance breed", the Association again broke ranks with the other breed associations when they implemented an inventory based fee structure and reporting system in 1995. Total Herd Reporting (THR) requires the production of every registered Red Angus female to be accounted for every year, as well as the performance of every Red Angus calf raised through weaning. If a cow and her calf are not accounted for in a given year, the cow is removed from the registry.

A Leader in Evaluating Fertility
The RAAA has led the industry with its commitment to objectively describing traits related to reproduction and sustained fertility. The first of this new class of EPDs was Red Angus’ Stayability estimate. This EPD ranks animals with regard to the probability their daughters will continue producing in the herd past six years of age. The development of of a new Heifer Pregnancy EPD expands Red Angus’ commitment in this vital area.

A Leader in Genotypic Certification
In 1995, Red Angus unveiled the industry’s first genotypic and source identified program, the Feeder Calf Certification Program (FCCP). The innovative FCCP has the honor of being the first program of its kind to be USDA Process Verified, certifying a calf’s link to the "Angus" gene pool.

A Leader in Value Based Marketing
Red Angus has been at the forefront of the industry’s efforts to move toward a system of value based marketing. The Association is believed to be the first breed association to offer its members and commercial customers a value-based pricing grid with a major packing company.

Leadership Has Made A Difference
Red Angus are Angus; yet the Red Angus breeders’ history of leadership and innovation have made a profound difference in the red strain. They have avoided the short-term fads that have negatively affected so many other breeds. Coupled with the long-term commercial focus of the membership, the Red Angus gene pool also offers many advantages. Red Angus provides a consistent source of traditional Angus traits, including carcass quality, maternal characteristics, calving ease, and moderate size. In addition, Red Angus offer uniformity, good disposition, and an outstanding appetite.

Today, Red Angus are seeing unparalleled popularity both in the U.S. and internationally. In fact, the growing notoriety of the breed is bringing worldwide demand for breeding stock from South Africa, Australia and South America, where the majority of the cattle are red in color. This has led Red Angus to become the leading U.S. beef breed in semen exports. In the U.S., the number of Red Angus has tripled from the mid-1980’s through the mid-1990’s. In Canada, where red and black Angus cattle are registered together (which is the case in most countries), the number of red cattle registered is approximately the same as the black strain.

The Future

Due to the numerous natural advantages with which the Red Angus breed is endowed, and based off the heritage and continued philosophy of the Red Angus Association of America, it appears that a great breed is coming into its own. The future of the breed as the common denominator in progressive cattle producers’ crossbreeding systems is unlimited. As Joseph Givhan, founding RAAA member, shared in his early publication on the breed’s history...

"Here is a noble breed that will never die, destined to increase and flourish. It shall cover the grazing lands of the earth and forever enrich the husbandry of mankind."

[Oklahoma State University]
Red Brangus
Red Brangus, produced by a mating of black Angus cows and grey Brahman bulls, got their start in the early 1930's. Cattlemen noticed that the crossbred calves from the bottom end of the herd and at the back pasture came smaller, grew faster and had more meat than the British purebreds popular at the time. That wasn't enough for these far-sighted beef producers, however, They spent the next 20 years making sure that the results of these matings were repeatable and predictable.

Since that time those who have joined forces with that group have dedicated themselves to the production of profitable, functional cattle that produce the lean, tasty beef today's consumer demands.

The breed has grown from its Central and South Texas beginnings to a mainstay in commercial herds across the United States. Purebred breeders have sprung up in far away places like South Africa and several South American countries. That growth has been natural, as genuine interest in the productive capabilities of the breed brought about natural, progressive expansion.

[Oklahoma State University]
Red Colonist, Red German see Red Steppe (below)
Red Karachi see Red Sindhi (below)
Red Pied Friesian, Also Known By: Fries Roodbont, Friesian Red and White, Red Friesian
The Red Pied Friesian is a dairy breed found in the Netherlands. It originated from Dutch Black Pied without the infusion of Holstein breeding. The breeds is currently in danger of extinction.[Oklahoma State University]
Red Poll
Society: American Red Poll Association
The Red Poll cattle were developed as a dual-purpose breed in their native counties in England. Breeders sought a type that would fatten readily rather than be of extreme size. A good milk flow was also considered important in selecting breeding stock in the development of the breed in its native land.

The counties of Suffolk and Norfolk in England are the original homes of the Red Poll. These counties, which lie in a low rather marshy section of England, border the North Sea and have soil that is generally lacking in fertility. The first general agricultural records of England record a great interest in dairy, particularly in Suffolk County. However, the farmers did not specialize in dairy animals but preferred cattle with a combination of milk production and high quality carcasses.

No one knows when the first cattle were introduced into Suffolk, but it was thought that cattle were brought to that area by the Romans.

In discussing the cattle of Suffolk in 1794, Rev. Arthur Young, in his book The General View of Agriculture of the County of Norfolk, reported:

This breed is universally polled, that is without horns; the size small, few rise when fat to above fifty stones (fourteen pounds). . . . If I were to describe the points of certain individuals . . . a clean throat with little dewlap; a thin clean snake head; thin legs; a very large carcase; ribs tolerably springing from the centre of the back but with a heavy belley; backbone ridged; chine thin and hollow; loin narrow; udder large, loose and creased when empty; milk-veins remarkably large, and rising in knotted puffs to the eye . . . many of these beasts will fatten remarkably well; the flesh of a fine quality; and in that state will feel well enough to satisfy the touch of skillful butchers. The best milkers I have known, have either been red, brindle, or yellowish cream coloured . . . the quality of milk is very considerable indeed.

The cattle of Norfolk were described in 1782 by Marshall (as quoted in the Red Polled Herd Book, vol 1, American ed., 1891) as:

a small, hardy, thriving race; fattening as freely and finishing as highly at three years old as cattle in general do at four or five. They are small boned, short legged, round barrelled, well-loined, thin-thighed, clean chapped; the head, in general, fine, and the horns clean, middle sized and bent forward; the favorite colour a blood-red with a white mottled face . . . and if the London butchers be judges of beef, there are no better beasts sent to Smithfield market. The two qualifications, namely the superior quality of their flesh, and their fattening freely at an early age, do away with every solid objection to their size and form.

It is not definitely known when the two breeds were first crossed, or what infusions of blood may have been from other breeds. Galloway Cattle and Devons were brought into the area, and, no doubt, some of this breeding found its way into what later was called the Red Polled Breed.
The Red Poll In America
G.P Taber of New York State started importing Red Polled cattle in 1873. His fist importation consisted of a bull and three heifers; two years later, he imported four more cows; in 1882 he brought over three bulls ad twenty-three additional heifers. In 1882, Messrs. Mead and Kimball, Randolph, Vermont, imported a bull and ten females. Importation was a thriving business for a few years but after 1902 practically no more Red Polls were brought over. The breed was established in the United States on only about 300 head that were brought in from Britain. The breed spread from the United States into Canada

Current selection criteria on Red Poll in the United States is primarily for beef production.

The first Red Poll Association was organized as the Red Poll Cattle Club of America in 1883. The association was re-incorporated in Nebraska in 1947, and the name changed to the American Red Poll Association in 1975.

[Oklahoma State University]
Red Polled Eastland see Red Polled Østland (see below)
Red Polled Østland, Also known as: Raukolle, Østlandsk raudkolle, Raukolle, Rødkolle, Eastland, Norwegian Red Polled, Østland, Red Polled Eastland.
This is a non-commercial rare breed with registered population of 30 heifers (2 years and younger) and 27 cows as of January 1995.

It is a naturally polled, red dairy cow. Live weight is approximately 500 kg. Semen reserves in 1995 was 11,156 units. (13 bulls).

[Oklahoma State University]
Red Sindhi, Also Known By: Malir (Baluchistan), Red Karachi, Sindhi
The Red Sindhi originated in the Pakistani state of Sind but due to its hardiness, heat resistance and high milk yields they have spread into many parts of India and at least 33 countries in Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi averages over 1700 kg of milk after suckling their calves but under optimum conditions there have been milk yields of over 3400 kg per lactation.

The average height of a Red Sindhi cow is 116 cm with a body weight of 340 kg. Bulls average 134 cm in height and a body weight of 420 kg. They are normally a deep, rich red color but this can vary from a yellowish brown to dark brown. Males are darker than females and when mature may be almost black on the extremities, such as the head, feet and tail.

Red Sindhi in Australia

Red Sindhi cattle arrived in Australia in 1954 from Pakistan, as a gift to the Australian Government. While traditionally considered a milking breed they have been successfully used in crossing systems with British breeds to produce tropical beef types. In Australia, they have been an adaptable, hardy breed, good foragers and have a high degree of resistance to heat and ticks.

[Oklahoma State University]
Red Steppe, Also known by: Krasnaya stepnaya (Russian), Red Colonist, Red German, Red Ukrainian
The Red Steppe breed was developed from Red East Friesian and Angeln crossed with Ukrainian Grey and later some Swiss Brown and East Friesian during the time from 1789 to 1824. It was developed in the Ukraine and southern European Russia by Mennonites.

The Red Steppe was the most widespread breed found in the former U.S.S.R., with the highest milk-producing capacity of any breed in that country. The production per lactation varies from 3,000 to 5,000 kg. They are a large, dark red breed with some variation in conformation due to the differences in breed composition. Often times the females reach 550 kg and stand 132 cm, while the bulls can be as heavy as 1,000 kg and stand 142 cm.

[Oklahoma State University]
Reggiana, Also known by: Formentina
The Reggiana is found in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy. They are red to yellow-brown in color with light muzzle and black-tipped horns. Adult males weigh on average 650 kg and females 500 kg with an average wither height of 145 cm and 140 cm respectively. The milk from this breed is popular for cheese making due to the high levels of k-casein B allele in its milk and for its reproductive qualities and good adaptation to marginal land.

Contact: Provincial Breeders Association; Reggio Emilia 421, Via Bojardi 4/a; Italy

[Oklahoma State University]
The Retinta is the most numerous breed in Spain with a high concentration in Extremadura and West Andalucia, where the breed originated. The breed is dark red with a black nose and hooves and lyre shaped horns. The Retinta originated from a combination of Andalusian Red, Extremadura Red and Andalusian Blond.

The Retinta are work and beef animals with the primary current selection for beef production. Their size and development vary substantially from region to region, with light colored animals being found in the coastal areas. The largest variety is the Tamerone, with is selected and bred at Las Lomas Finca in the region of Cadiz.

Retinta cows are typically 136 cm in height and 380 - 590 kg in weight. Bulls are larger and stand 141 cm with a weight range of 660 to 1000 kg. [Oklahoma State University]

Röd Kullig Lantras, Röd Kullig Boskap see Swedish Red Polled
The Rojhan is a draft breed found in the Suleman Range of Mountains in the southern part of D.G. Khan district (Rojhan, Kachagaddi, Umarkot and Somemiani villages) in Punjab Province and parts of Dera Ismail Khan, Kohat and Bannu districts in NWF Province in Pakistan. They have a red and white spotted coat that has considerable in variation in spot size. Their average weight at maturity is 350 kg for males and 250 kg for females.

They have a small compact body with a small head and a short neck. They have small and alert ears, medium horns tapering at the tips, a proportionately large hump and an extended dewlap, tight skin, a thin tail ending mostly in white switch. Bulls are suitable for draft work in hilly and sub-hilly areas. The udder is small and tucked-up in cows.

[Oklahoma State University]
The Romangnola breed of cattle derives from the Bos primigenius podolicus, a wild ox which lived on the Italian peninsula and, to a great extent also, from the Bos primigenius nomadicus, a bovine originating in the Euro - Asian steppes, which came to Italy during the fourth century A.D. with the Gothic invasion led by Aginulf.

The Romagnola therefore combines the characteristics of both major types of Aurochs, the ancient wild cattle which were the forebears of the modern Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus cattle breeds.

These primitive beasts gave rise to several breeds with similar characteristics throughout Italy. Common traits of these breeds are lyre - shaped horns, black pigmented skin, white or greyish coat and general conformation. In northeastern Italy the amalgamation of Bos primigenius podolicus and Bos primigenius nomadicus saw the formation of a new breed. Since this region, comprising the provinces of Ravenna, Forl and Rimini was known as Romagna, the breed acquired the name Romagnola.

For centuries the main purpose of these animals was to assist man in tilling the fertile plains, with the production of beef as a secondary consideration. The fertile soils and high quality forage contributed significantly to the evolution towards a progressively more muscular type while the continued use of Romagnolas as living tractors ensured their structural soundness and dynamic traits. During the past century the mechanization of agriculture has seen the role of the Romagnola directed specifically into beef production.

The man responsible for the definite change in this direction was Leopoldo Tosi, who developed the first nucleus of selectively bred Romagnola cattle in the mid 1800s in San Mauro Pascoli on the estate of the Counts of Torlonia. This initial herd became the focal point for the entire breed. Over a relatively short period great progress was made such that by the year 1900 the Romagnola was able to win first prize as best beef breed, ex equo, with Herefords at the Paris International Agricultural Fair.

Physiology and Functional Characteristics

Romagnola bulls are among the largest of the beef breeds. Although their very heavy muscling was once sought for draft, that characteristic is now attracting attention to them for meat purposes. Their muscularity over the loin, rump and through the shoulders and lower thigh is especially pronounced. In contrast to the Chianina the Romangnola are much shorter in the leg. The bone structure in this breed is also considered moderate. A study of its proportions, (the rib cage is at least as deep as the distance from the brisket to the ground), places the Romagnola among the meso brachy-morphous breeds.

The breed has a number of distinctive characteristics such as the horns, which are lyre-shaped in cows and half-moon shaped in bulls; the hair which is ivory colored in cows and grey around the eyes and shoulders in the bulls. The skin is black pigmented as also are the extremities, muzzle, horn tips, tail switch, hoofs, vulva, tip of sheath, and base of scrotum. This coloration is an adaptive response to the hot natural climate of the breed. Calves are born a light reddish color and turn white when they are about three months old.

Adult weights on average are 1,250kg (2750 lbs) for bulls and 750kg (1650 lbs) for cows. Sexual maturity is rached relativel early for a large breed. The dispositions are good, and rapid gain, economical feed conversion, good dressing percentages and a good quality carcass are claimed for the breed.

[Oklahoma State University]
Romosinuano, Also Known As: Coastal Polled, Moruno-Sinuano
The Romosinuano was developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. They are of the Criollo type, red-brown and polled. The name Romosinuano means Polled Sinú. The Romosinuano originated during the late 1800's from Costeño con Cuernos (Horned Sinú). It is unknown whether the polled trait is an independent mutation within the Costeño con Cuernos or if there were Angus or Red Poll blood introduced.

The breed is somewhat smaller than the Costeño con Cuernos with the mature females weighing 400 kg and males 500 kg. The breed is docile with typical beef conformation.

[Oklahoma State University]
Russian Black Pied
The Black Pied breed developed from crossing the local cattle in various areas with the Dutch Black Pied and East Friesian breeds. Pure breeding of Dutch cattle in Russia was conducted on only a small scale. The central, Ukrainian, Siberian and other strains of Black Pied cattle were formed by adsorptive and reproductive crossing.

The various strains of Black Pied cattle were approved as a planned breed in 1925. Therefore, some animals were imported from Germany, the Netherlands, Estonia and Lithuania during 1930-40 and distributed in various parts of the country. The imported sires improved milk production, feed conversion efficiency, and beef qualities. Five thousand head of the Dutch breed were imported during 1957-65. The production of the female ancestors of 107 bulls was 6-7000 kg of milk with butterfat content of 4.4-4.6%.

The Black Pied breed is noted for high milk production (the highest among the dairy breeds), good conformation and good beef qualities. Due to the high productivity, adjustment to machine milking, well-defined beef features and the ability to acclimatize, the population of this breed is increasing year by year. By the beginning of 1980 the number of Black Pied cattle in the USSR was 16 449 000 excluding the Baltic population. In numbers they are second (25.2%) among 50 cattle breeds in the country.

The Black Pied breed includes varied groups of animals, originating from different maternal stocks under different climatic and feeding conditions. The crossing of the local low-grade cattle - Great Russian, Siberian, Trans-Ural, Central Asian, Grey Ukranian - with Dutch bulls started at different times. The basic aim was to form a breed adapted to many different regions but originating from a single foundation breed. This unified breed was recognized in 1959.

The Black Pied breed comprises five large populations: Central (mid-Russian), Baltic, Ural, Siberian, and other zones, namely Ukraine, Byelorussia, Central Asia, and parts of Transcaucasia.

The animals of the Central group are the largest (live weight 550-650 kg), with a more compact conformation, relatively short legged and a good exterior appearance. This group is noted for the highest milk production (5500-6500 kg) with low butterfat content (3.6-3.7%).

On the other hand, the Ural strain is of a lighter, fine-boned solid type (500-600 kg live weight) with longer legs, less pronounced beef features, and high milk yield (5000-6000 kg) and butterfat content (3.8-3.9%).

The Siberian strain is an even lighter type (450-550 kg), with good milk yield (4500-5000 kg) and medium butterfat content (3.7-3.8%).

The remaining groups are intermediate between the three leading strains. The Baltic population

A network of selection centers was set up in the USSR in 1975. The All-Union Research Institute for Livestock Breeding and Genetics has become the center for work with the Black Pied breed. It unites the breeding activities of the leading breeding stations and zonal institutions that deal with this breed. The main goal of this selection center is to breed highly productive strains, types, herds, and lines of the Black Pied breed, by raising valuable sires for the A.I. stations, progeny testing them, storing semen of the improved sires, and using it for improving the great mass of the Black Pied cattle.

The comprehensive measures undertaken have made it possible to improve the productivity and the pedigree value of the Black Pied cattle in the working zones of the selection centers. The principal indicators of the activity of the breeding farms are the number and quality of the pedigree young stock produced and primarily of the sires. Realization in the last 15 years of this large-scale selection program has allowed a new approach to line breeding of the Black Pied cattle. In the breeding herds, bulls are produced by intra-line assortative mating with the use of moderate inbreeding. In the commercial farms the breeding activities are confined to the rotational crossing of lines within the breed. This increases the productivity, viability and fertility of the offspring.

The successful use of selection to breed, assess and use the better genotypes assisted in the formation of highly productive herds of the national Black Pied cattle. The average milk yield of 11 100 cows of the leading herds surveyed in various regions of the RSFSR in 1984 was 5559 kg, with a butterfat content of 3.82%. The best breeding stations are as follows: Petrovski in Leningrad region (1080 cows, 6671 kg milk, 3.91% butterfat); Lesnoye (750 cows, 6604 milk, 3.89% butterfat); Petrovskoye in Moscow region (750 cows, 5630 kg, 3.94% ); Zarya Ko izma in the same region (3150 cows, 5450 kg, 3.78%); Imeni Lenina collective farm in Tula region (1000 cows, 5480 kg, 3.90%).

The milk production of the champion Black Pied cows with a milk yield per lactation of over 10 000 kg and with a lifetime production of 90-100 000 kg points to the high potential of this breed. At the six base farms of the All-Union Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics alone over 100 cows with a milk production of 10 000 kg or more have been bred.

In Sverdlovsk region the milk yield of over 22 000 cows was 4800-5000 kg with 3.86-3.90% fat. At the leading breeding stations over 240 cows have a yield of 6500-7500 kg of including 206 cows with a yield of over 7000 kg.

The milk production of the best cows on the farms of the Ural area is as follows: Aida 220 (the record holder for lifetime production) produced in 13 lactations 117 720 kg of milk with a butterfat content of 3.75%, or 4415 kg of milk fat; she belongs to the stud farm No. 9 of Perm region. Cow Volga 3790, in her 3rd lactation produced 17 517 kg of milk with 4.20% butterfat; she was kept at Rossiya breeding center in Chelyabinsk region. Gornaya 6329 at the same farm - 5th, 13 849 kg, 4.10%; Yagoda 6010 - 3rd, 13 146 kg, 3.93%.

The Black Pied breed accounts for the greatest numbers of champions with milk yields over 10,000 kg - 79 out of 212.

The breeding program of the Black Pied breed aims to produce a type with a milk yield of 6.0-7.5 thousand kg, butterfat content 3.8-3.9%, live weight of cows not less than 600 kg, udder index of 43-45% and milk flow speed of 2.0-2.5 kg per minute by using Holstein-Friesian sires from the U.S.A. and Canada. By the beginning of 1985, the basic numbers of highly productive halfbreds were bred at the leading breeding centers namely: Lesnoe and Petrovski in Leningrad region, Zarya Kommunizma in Moscow region and at Imeni Lenina collective farm in Tula region. Valuable sires have been bred in these Herds as well.

The best cows at the leading farms of the selection center are united in the super-elite group. The milk production of these animals is 6.2-7.7 000 kg with a butterfat content of 3.99-4.27%. They are used to produce replacement bull calves.

The breeding establishments of this country have valuable sires. The milk production of their dams and of the female ancestors of their sires ranges from 6250 to 8300 kg with butterfat content 3.99-4.48%. The major suppliers of the replacement bulls for the breeding centers are the farms of Moscow, Leningrad, Perm, Chelyabinsk, and Sverdlovsk regions. Bulls of more than 70 related groups and lines are currently in use; 45 of them are represented by small numbers of descendants and have only local importance. The sires of the lines Rikus 25415 (16.5%), Poseidon 239, and Oreshek 1 are widely used among the national lines. The descendants of the well-known Dutch bull Annnas Adema 30587 through the related groups of Keimpe 48326/43454 (21.7%) and Frizo Vouter 44116 (8.4%) have been widely distributed (30.1%).

Studies at the breeding station Lesnoye and at the breeding farm Torosovo in the Leningrad region have shown that selection has had only a minor effect on the frequency of specific erythrocyte antigens. This relative stability suggests that these polymorphisms are of adaptive significance.

[Oklahoma State University]
One of the first of the new composite beef breeds (early 1970's) and the strictest in terms of a planned genetic program.

RX3 stands for the "synthesis" of three red American breeds into a new and superior recombination. The three foundation breeds were carefully chosen for the specific genetic traits each could contribute to the new breed. It was necessary to develop a new germ plasm pool which would allow selection for the essential traits of a more complete breed.

I: Pure Herefords from Miles City, MT, Livestock Experiment Station female lines were crossed with pure Red and White Holstein sires from the Larry Moore Holstein Herd, Suamico, WI. This "first cross" was made under range conditions in Montana and North Dakota.

II: The pure Red Angus sire Choctaw Chief 373 and his sons and grandsons from the pioneer Beef Cattle Co. herd, Johnston, IA, were used on the F1 female population to complete the three breed merger. The 'Chiefline' strain of Red Angus has continued to dominate the Red Angus Breed in their National Sire Evaluation.

III: The Breed synthesis is made, the new germ pool established and now the most important step of all, the molding of the new breed. This is being done by use of tough and disciplined testing combined with intelligent and systematic selection for the traits of greatest economic importance.

[Oklahoma State University]

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